Interview Questions latest


Difference between MS outlook and Outlook express? Tell 5 differences.

Ans.
Outlook Express
Outlook Express is the e-mail client that is included with Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.x, Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.x, the Microsoft Windows 98 operating system, the Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me) operating system, the Microsoft Windows 2000 operating systems, and Microsoft Office 98 for the Macintosh. Outlook Express is designed for home users who gain access to their e-mail messages by dialing in to an Internet service provider (ISP).

Built on open Internet standards, Outlook Express is designed for use with any Internet standard system, for example, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3), and Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP). It provides full support for today’s most important e-mail, news, and directory standards such as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension Hypertext Markup Language (MHTML), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME), and Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). Full support ensures that you can take advantage of new technologies as well as seamlessly send and receive e-mail.

New migration tools that automatically import your existing mail settings, address book entries, and e-mail messages from Eudora, Netscape, Microsoft Exchange Server, the Windows Inbox, and Outlook make it easy for you to quickly take advantage of all that Outlook Express has to offer. The ability to receive mail from multiple e-mail accounts, as well as the ability to create Inbox rules, helps you manage and organize your e-mail.

Ms Outlook
Outlook is Microsoft’s premier messaging and collaboration client. It is a stand-alone application that is integrated into Microsoft Office and Exchange Server. Outlook also provides performance and integration with Internet Explorer 5.5. Complete integration of e-mail, calendaring, and contact management, makes Outlook the perfect client for many business users.

Outlook helps you find and organize information so that you can work seamlessly with Office applications. This helps you communicate and share information more effectively.

Powerful Inbox rules enable you to filter and organize e-mail messages. With Outlook, you can integrate and manage e-mail from multiple e-mail accounts, personal and group calendars, contacts, and tasks.

When you use Outlook with Exchange Server, you can use workgroup information sharing and workflow communications, group scheduling, public folders, forms, and enhanced Internet connectivity.

Outlook is designed for use with the Internet (SMTP, POP3, and IMAP4), Exchange Server, or any other standards-based communication system that supports Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI), including voice mail. Outlook is based on Internet standards and supports today’s most important e-mail, news, and directory standards, including LDAP, MHTML, NNTP, MIME, and S/MIME, vCalendar, vCard, iCalendar, and full support for HTML mail.

Outlook also offers the same import tools that are offered with Outlook Express. This enables easy migration from other e-mail clients, and offers further migration from Microsoft Mail, Microsoft Schedule+ 1.0, Microsoft Schedule+ 7.0, Lotus Organizer, NetManage ECCO, Starfish SideKick, Symantec ACT, as well as synchronization with leading Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), such as the 3Com Palm Pilot.

Difference between domain and Domain controller?
Ans. DOMAIN

In Active Directory, a collection of computer, user, and group objects defined by the administrator. These objects share a common directory database, security policies, and security relationships with other domains. In DNS, any tree or sub tree within the DNS namespace. Although the names for DNS domains often correspond to Active Directory domains, DNS domains should not be confused with Active Directory domains.

DOMAINCONTROLLER

In an Active Directory forest, a server that contains a writable copy of the Active Directory database, participates in Active Directory replication, and controls access to network resources. Administrators can manage user accounts, network access, shared resources, site topology, and other directory objects from any domain controller in the forest.

What is OU?
Ans. A particularly useful type of directory object contained within domains is the organizational unit. Organizational units are Active Directory containers into which you can place users, groups, computers, and other organizational units. An organizational unit cannot contain objects from other domains. An organizational unit is the smallest scope or unit to which you can assign Group Policy settings or delegate administrative authority. Using organizational units, you can create containers within a domain that represent the hierarchical, logical structures within your organization. You can then manage the configuration and use of accounts and resources based on your organizational model. OUs are part of the LDAP name space and not the DNS name space.
What is Backup? Different types of backup?
Ans.The Backup utility helps you protect data from accidental loss if your system experiences hardware or storage media failure. The backup storage medium can be a logical drive such as your hard drive, or a separate storage device such as a removable disk, or an entire library of disks or tapes.
The Backup utility supports five methods of backing up data on your computer or network.

Copy backup
A copy backup copies all selected files but does not mark each file as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is not cleared). Copying is useful if you want to back up files between normal and incremental backups because copying does not affect these other backup operations.

Daily backup
A daily backup copies all selected files that have been modified the day the daily backup is performed. The backed-up files are not marked as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is not cleared).

Differential backup
A differential backup copies files created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup. It does not mark files as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is not cleared). If you are performing a combination of normal and differential backups, restoring files and folders requires that you have the last normal as well as the last differential backup.

Incremental backup
An incremental backup backs up only those files created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup. It marks files as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is cleared). If you use a combination of normal and incremental backups, you will need to have the last normal backup set as well as all incremental backup sets in order to restore your data.

Normal backup
A normal backup copies all selected files and marks each file as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is cleared). With normal backups, you need only the most recent copy of the backup file or tape to restore all of the files. You usually perform a normal backup the first time you create a backup set.
Backing up your data using a combination of normal backups and incremental backups requires the least amount of storage space and is the quickest backup method. However, recovering files can be time-consuming and difficult because the backup set can be stored on several disks or tapes.
Backing up your data using a combination of normal backups and differential backups is more time-consuming, especially if your data changes frequently, but it is easier to restore the data because the backup set is usually stored on only a few disks or tapes.

How to check the health of Domain Controller?
Ans. How can I check domain controller health of a number of machines on the network? The following simple way we can do if we do not have a specific application servers such as Microsoft System Center Operations Manager or third party tools to check.
How can I check domain controller health of a number of machines on the network? The following simple way we can do if we do not have a specific application servers such as Microsoft System Center Operations Manager or third party tools to check.
Always do check in Event Viewer, and see some of the events associated with the domain controller, replication, dns, etc..
And also do health checks on the domain controller machine, create Health_Check folder in C: \ or another location that you like to accommodate report the results of the checking. Health Check domain controller by running:
Dcdiag.exe /v >> c:\Health_Check\pre_dcdiag.txt
This command must be done and will notify you if there are problems with DC and / or services associated with the domain controller.
Netdiag.exe /v >> c:\Health_Check\pre_Netdiag.txt
This command tells if there are issues with the network components on the domain controller.
Netsh dhcp show server >> c:\Health_Check\pre_dhcp.txt
This command is to reexamine the existence of a dhcp server that is authorized.
Repadmin /showreps >> c:\Health_Check\pre_rep_partners.txt
This command displays all the replication of both the success and failures are made. The information obtained will be more if the engine is at once the Global Catalog.
repadmin /replsum /errorsonly >> c:\Health_Check\pre_repadmin_err.txt
This order for a summary of the replication process to ensure that there are certain issues.
 What are NETDIAG and DCDIAG?
Ans. Dcdiag.exe /v >> c:\Health_Check\pre_dcdiag.txt
This command must be done and will notify you if there are problems with DC and / or services associated with the domain controller.
Netdiag.exe /v >> c:\Health_Check\pre_Netdiag.txt
This command tells if there are issues with the network components on the domain controller.
32. What is server hardening?
Ans. Server Hardening is the process of enhancing server security through a variety of means resulting in a much more secure server operating environment which is due to the advanced security measures that are put in place during the server hardening process.
 Install all Service Packs/Hotfixes, etc.
 Disable all unnecessary services/devices/accounts
 Enable appropriate password settings (esp. Service Accounts!)
Enable appropriate logging/auditing
Use the concept of “Least Privilege”
Admin Accounts (esp. Service Accounts!)
User Rights (Beware the “Everyone” Group!)
Enable “extra” security settings (e.g. Warning Banners)
Tighten NTFS/Registry permissions
Implement Time Synchronization
33. What is memory dumping?
Ans.It is a process that writes technical information to the hard disk of a computer has stopped unexpectedly, usually used for debugging purposes. The cause of the memory dump can be problem with device drivers, hardware or software. You can load small memory dump files by using the Dump Check Utility (Dumpchk.exe). You can also use Dumpchk.exe to verify that a memory dump file has been created correctly. You can also read small memory dump files by using the WinDbg tool or the KD.exe tool.
The default location of the dump file is in C:\WINDOWS\Minidump and it is having the extension as .dmp.
34. What is the smallest size of memory dump file?
Ans.64 kb
35. What are the different types of memory dump files?
Ans.1.Complete memory dump
        2. Small memory dump
       3. Kernel memory dump
37. What is NNTP? What is the use of it? 
Ans. NNTP is an acronym for Network News Transfer Protocol. From the user end, it simply refers to the means by which the many thousands of various newsgroups and their associated content are accessed by client computers. The protocol is based on the sharing of large amounts of information between the various NNTP servers and the client’s. NNTP servers are generally accessed through one’s ISP. NNTP information is transferred over TCP port 119.
38. What is paged pool and non paged pool memory?
Ans. When a machine boots up, the Memory Manager creates two dynamically sized memory pools that kernel-mode components use to allocate system memory. These two pools are known as the Paged Pool and Non Paged Pool.  Each of these pools start at an initial size that is based upon the amount of physical memory present in the system.  Pool memory is a subset of available memory.
The first difference is that Paged Pool is exactly what its name implies – it can be paged out.  The Non Paged Pool cannot be paged out.  Drivers use the Non Paged Pool for many of their requirements because they can be accessed at any Interrupt Request Level (IRQL).
The non paged pool is memory which always resides in physical memory – it is never paged out.  It is used by the kernel and also by device drivers installed on a system to store data which might be accessed in situations when page faults are not allowed.  The amount of memory allocated to the non paged pool varies, and is determined as a function of operating system, processor architecture, and physical memory size.
What is Global Catalog?

Ans.By default a GC is created automatically on the first DC in the forest. The GC provides the ability to locate objects from any domain without having to know the domain name. A GC is a domain controller that stores a full replica of all objects in the directory for its own domain and a partial replica of all objects of every other domain in the forest. The replica I partial because it stores only some attributes for each objects.
The GC performs 2 key directory roles:-
It enables network logon by providing universal group membership information to a DC when a logon process is initiated.
What is lingering object in AD? How do you delete a lingering object?

Ans: A lingering object is a deleted AD object that re-appears (“lingers”) on the restored domain controller (DC) in its local copy of Active Directory. An object that has been permanently deleted from Active Directory (that is, its tombstone has been garbage-collected) remains on a domain controller. The domain controller failed to receive direct or transitive replication of the object deletion because it was disconnected (offline or experiencing an inbound replication failure) from the replication topology for a period that exceeded a tombstone lifetime. That object has been updated on the domain controller, causing a replication notification to the replication partner that an update is ready for replication. The replication partner has responded according to its replication consistency setting. This notification applies to attempted replication of a writable object. A copy of the writable lingering object might also exist on a global catalog ser
It enables finding directory information regardless of which domain in the forest actually contain the data.
To DETECT and REMOVE lingering objects:
  • STRICT replication consistency MUST be enabled for the following to work.
  • Will NOT work with LOOSE replication consistency as the data between the “DC with lingering objects” and “DC with correct data” is the same
  • REPADMIN /REMOVELINGERINGOBJECTS
    • Example:
      • repadmin /removelingeringobjects BAD-DC.ADCORP.LAN ed0c6601-28c1-47e9-b3db-5dcf291d9e31 DC=ADCORP,DC=LAN
  • On the DC containing the lingering objects the event IDs 1937 (starting removal summary), 1945 (for each lingering object detected and removed) and 1939 (final removal summary) are registered in the Directory Service event log.

 What are boot volume and system volume?

  • Ans. Boot volume: The volume that contains the Windows operating system and its support files. The boot volume can be, but does not have to be, the same as the system volume.
    System volume: The volume that contains the hardware-specific files that you must have to load Windows. The system volume can be, but does not have to be, the same as the boot volume. The Boot.ini, Ntdetect.com, and Ntbootdd.sys files are examples of files that are located on the system volume.
 What is conditional forwarding?

Ans. Conditional forwarding is a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to speed up name resolution in certain scenarios. They can also be used to help companies resolve each other’s namespace in a situation where companies collaborate a merger is underway. A conditional forwarder is one that handles name resolution only for a specific domain. A conditional forwarder is a Domain Name System (DNS) server on a network that you use to forward DNS queries according to the DNS domain name in the query. For example, you can configure a DNS server to forward all the queries it receives for names ending with widgets.contoso.com to the IP address of a specific DNS server or to the IP addresses of multiple DNS servers.
A user is not able to login to one system and able to login in another system in domain system. What will be the cause for this?

Ans.It could be because of pdc emulator is not available.
When a new user is login to the new computer, it is mandatory to have pdc emulator and global catalog on the network.
The system cache stores logged in users id and password so they can login to the system if the pdc emulator is not available also.
Important tools
Ping:-
Tracert:-
Ipconfig /all:-To view the TCP/IP related information from a windows system.
Ipconfig /release:-To release the IP address of a windows system.
Ipconfig /renew:-To renew the IP address of a windows system.
Ipconfig /flushdns:-
Ipconfig /displaydns:-
Ipconfig /registerdns:-
Dsget: – The Dsget command-line utility is used to display the selected properties of a specified object within the Active Directory
Dsadd: – You can automate the process of creating users, groups, contacts, quota, ou and computers through the Dsadd command-line utility.
Dsmove: – The Dsmove command-line utility is used to rename or move a single object within the Active Directory.
Dsquery: – You use the Dsquery command-line utility to query the Active Directory for objects that meet specified criteria.
Dsmod: – You can modify existing Active Directory objects through the Dsmod command-line utility
Nslookup:-
Hostname:-
Netuser:-
Netuse:-
Netstat:-
Netview:-
Arp:-
Netdiag:-
Netdiag /fix:-
Dcdiag:-
Gpupdate /force:-
Dcpromo:-
Dcpromo /adv:-
Dcpromo /remove:-
Diskpart:-
Cipher:-
1) What is Paged pool  memory
2) What is Non paged pool memory
3) What is Virtual Memory and how it is different from a Page file?
4) What is a Page File?
6) What is PAE Switch and why it is needed?
7) What is /3GB switch and why its needed?
8  What is the difference between 64bit OS and 32bit OS?
1) What is DNS?
Ans: Its a distributed naming system which is organized in a hierarchy. Its used in private network or internet by computers, services or entities lying within.

2) What is Domain Naming Service?
Ans: A domain naming service translates names to IP address and vice-verse. Since humans can’t remember numbers but names, this system was designed so that it helps them recognize a service or computer by name but computers are able to talk to each other using IP addresses.

3) What is forward look up?
Ans: When DNS server is queried for a name and it returns an IP address in reply, its called forward lookup. For example when I type yahoo.com in the internet explorer, the dns server returns an IP address to which a computer is able to connect.

4) What is reverse lookup?
Ans: When a DNS client queries a DNS server about an IP and the DNS server responds by providing a name is known as reverse lookup in DNS.

5) What is DNS cache?
Ans: All the queries that a DNS client does, its results are saved by it in its temporary storage so that next time when it has to find out about an IP or name, it would first look into the cache. If its not there, then only it’ll contact the DNS server. This temporary storage is called DNS cache. It helps increase the speed of name resolution for frequently queried names.

Q: How DNS query works? 
Ans: The answer is a detailed one. Please visit this page to know more.


6) What are DNS forwarders?
Ans: When we setup DNS servers we want queries for internet names to be forwarded to ISP DNS so that those can be resolved by the server to which they have been forwarded and returned back to my DNS server. These servers to which the DNS queries are forwarded to are called “DNS Forwarders”.  
Internet names are just one example, we could as well set up forwarders for a particular domain name as well.

7) What is Primary DNS Server?
Ans: Its the Writable copy of the DNS where the DNS database is stored. All the changes related to creation, deletion or modification of a DNS record or Zone is done on this server.

8) What is secondary DNS?
Ans: Secondary DNS servers are read only replica of primary DNS servers. They are created to distribute the load of primary DNS servers and to prevent the writable copy of the DNS to the external world. Secondary DNS servers do the same job of carrying out name resolution by using a read only copy of the primary DNS server database. They get this copy of primary DNS server database using one of the DNS Zone transfer methods. They are AXFR, IXFR and Full Zone Transfer.

IXFR – Incremental Zone Transfer.
AXFR – augmented Zone transfer.
Full/Complete Zone Transfer

To know more about Zone transfer in detail please visit this page and read thoroughly.

9) What is Active Directory Integrated DNS?
Ans: Active Directory–integrated DNS enables Active Directory storage and replication of DNS zone databases. Windows 2000 DNS server, the DNS server that is included with Windows 2000 Server, accommodates storing zone data in Active Directory. When you configure a computer as a DNS server, zones are usually stored as text files on name servers — that is, all of the zones required by DNS are stored in a text file on the server computer. These text files must be synchronized among DNS name servers by using a system that requires a separate replication topology and schedule called a zone transfer However, if you use Active Directory–integrated DNS when you configure a domain controller as a DNS name server, zone data is stored as an Active Directory object and is replicated as part of domain replication.

10) What is stand alone DNS Server?
Ans: A non AD integrated DNS can be termed as standalone DNS server. Its the only DNS server in an environment.

11) How DNS can do load balancing?
Ans: DNS can do load balancing by using the following methods:
         1) DNS Round Robin
2) Using weights on DNS records. For example we can define weight on each MX record to define how much of load we want a particular server to handle. 

12) What is Secondary Zone?
Ans: The zone hosting the read only copy of a Primary DNS server’s writable copy of Zone is called a secondary zone.

13) What is SRV record?
Ans: The SRV RR identifies the host(s) that will support particular services. The MX RR is a specialised example of service discovery while the SRV RR is a general purpose RR to discover any service.

14) What is A record and PTR record?
Ans: “A”  records are host records where a name is mapped to the IP address assigned to it. A “PTR” records where IP addresses are mapped to a name.

15) What is a Stub Zone?
Ans: A stub zone is a copy of a zone that contains only those resource records necessary to identify the authoritative Domain Name System (DNS) servers for that zone. A stub zone is used to resolve names between separate DNS namespaces. This type of resolution may be necessary when a corporate merger requires that the DNS servers for two separate DNS namespaces resolve names for clients in both namespaces.
A stub zone consists of:
The start of authority (SOA) resource record, name server (NS) resource records, and the glue A resource records for the delegated zone.


16) What is a delegated DNS zone? When do we use it?
Ans: Delegated DNS zones are created when we want the name resolution of subdomains or child domains to be broken up with in DNS. For more details please visit this page

17) Steps by Step method to install DNS in Windows?
Ans: Step by step method to install DNS in windows 2003 is given here.
Step by Step method to install DNS in Windows 2008 is given here.

19) How to troubleshoot Active Directory related DNS problems using DCDiag tool?
Ans: Please find the steps here. Do look for part 2 of this youtube video. 
 
20) New features of DNS in Windows 2008?

  • Background zone loading: DNS servers that host large DNS zones that are stored in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) are able to respond to client queries more quickly when they restart because zone data is now loaded in the background.
  • IP version 6 (IPv6) support: The DNS Server service now fully supports the longer addresses of the IPv6 specification.
  • Support for read-only domain controllers (RODCs): The DNS Server role in Windows Server 2008 provides primary read-only zones on RODCs.
  • Global single names: The GlobalNames zone provides single-label name resolution for large enterprise networks that do not deploy Windows Internet Name Service (WINS). The GlobalNames zone is useful when using DNS name suffixes to provide single-label name resolution is not practical.
  • Global query block list: Clients of such protocols as the Web Proxy Auto-Discovery Protocol (WPAD) and the Intra-site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) that rely on DNS name resolution to resolve well-known host names are vulnerable to malicious users who use dynamic update to register host computers that pose as legitimate servers. The DNS Server role in Windows Server 2008 provides a global query block list that can help reduce this vulnerability.

Watch the videos and have fun learning answers to the above mentioned questions and gain much more additional knowledge as well. Hope it helps you all.

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