NetBackup Interview Tutorial


Backup overview
The Backup utility helps you protect data from accidental loss if your system’s hardware or storage media fails. The backup storage medium can be a logical drive such as your hard disk, a separate storage device such as a removable disk, or an entire library of disks or tapes organized and controlled by a robotic changer.

Types of backup:

The Backup utility supports five methods of backing up data on your computer or network.

Copy backup : A copy backup copies all the files you select, but does not mark each file as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is not cleared). Copying is useful if you want to back up files between normal and incremental backups because copying does not affect these other backup operations.

Daily backup : A daily backup copies all the files that you select that have been modified on the day the daily backup is performed.

Differential backup : A differential backup copies files that have been created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup.

Incremental backup

An incremental backup backs up only those files that have been created or changed since the last normal or incremental backup.

Normal backup

A normal backup copies all the files you select and marks each file as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is cleared).

Netbackup  Introduction :
NetBackup provides high-performance backups and restores for a variety of platforms, including Microsoft Windows, UNIX, and NetWare systems.
Administrators can set up schedules for automatic, unattended backups for clients anywhere in the network.
Users can start backups and restores from the computer where they are working. A user can also archive files. An archive operation backs up a file and then deletes it from the local disk if the backup is successful. Once started, user operations are managed by the NetBackup server.
Netbackup Architecture :
NetBackup includes both the server and client software:
◆ Server software is on the computer that manages the storage devices.
◆ Client software is on the computer whose data you want to back up. A server also has client software and can be backed up like other clients.
3-Tier model of Netbackup :
TIER 1  Master Server:
•         Controls all backup and recovery operation.
•         Monitors the backup.
•         All the catalog reside on Master server
TIER 2  Media server:
•         Primarily helps in data movement.
•         Moves data to secondary storage devices (tape or disc) during backup.
•         Extracts data from secondary storage devices during a restore.
TIER 3  Netbackup Client:
•         Backs up data to net backup servers
Introduction to Storage Units
A NetBackup storage unit is a group of one or more storage devices of a specific type and density that attach to a NetBackup server.
There are four types of storage units:
  • Media Manager storage units
A Media Manager storage unit uses tape robots, standalone tape drives, or optical disk devices, that are under control of Media Manager
  • Disk storage units
A disk type storage unit consists of a directory on a hard disk that stores the backup or archive data.
  • NDMP storage units
NDMP storage units are controlled by Media Manager but attach to NDMP hosts and require that you have the NetBackup for NDMP option installed.
  • Disk Staging storage units
A disk staging storage unit provides the first storage location in a two-stage process called Disk Staging. In this process, client data is backed up to a disk staging storage unit, then, in the second stage, the data is relocated to another storage unit.
Storage Unit Group :
Storage unit groups allow you to identify specific storage devices as a group. A storage unit group name can be specified in a policy, just as individual storage units can be specified. When a storage unit group is used in a policy, only the storage units specified in the group will be candidates for the backup.
 Backup Policies :
Backup policies define the rules that NetBackup follows when backing up clients. A backup policy can apply to one or more clients. Every client must be covered by at least one backup policy.
There are 4 tabs while configuring a policy
General Attribute Tab : Here we can specify Whether the policy is active and what date and time the policy will go into effect , The type of backup policy, which primarily defines the type of clients the policy is set up to include , The priority that NetBackup gives to the backups for this policy relative to other policies , The storage unit that NetBackup uses by default when backing up clients covered by this policy, Compression .
Schedule Tab : The schedules determine when the backups occur.
There are two types of schedules
  • Automatic schedules back up the backup selection list on all clients in the policy according to the timetables set up in the schedules.
  • User schedules specify the times when users can start user backups and archives from the clients.
Client Tab : The client list names the computers that will be backed up according to a policy.
Backup selection Tab : The backup selections list names the files, directories, directives, scripts (used for database policies), and templates (used for Oracle and DB2 policies), that NetBackup includes in automatic backups of clients covered by a policy.
Policy Volume Pool : A logical grouping of volumes to be used for a specific application A volume pool is a set of media used only by the users and hosts designated when configuring the pool. Volume pools are created and media assigned when configuring media in Media Manager type storage devices. It is not available for disk type storage devices.
Checkpoint Restart for Backup Jobs : The Checkpoint Restart Every check box indicates whether NetBackup will take checkpoints during backup jobs based on this policy at the frequency indicated. Taking checkpoints during a backup is beneficial if a backup based on this policy fails. Without Checkpoint Restart enabled, a failed backup based on this policy is restarted from the beginning of the job. By taking checkpoints periodically during the backup, NetBackup can retry a failed backup from the last checkpoint rather than restarting the entire job.
NFS : The Follow NFS policy attribute specifies that you want NetBackup to back up or archive any NFS mounted files that are named in the backup selection list, or by the user in the case of a user backup or archive. The behavior of the Follow NFS attribute depends on the Cross mount points setting
Restore Collect True Image With Move Detection : The Collect True Image Restore With Move Detection policy attribute specifies that NetBackup also collect the information required to detect files and directories that have been moved, renamed, or newly installed and then include those files and directories in incremental backups for this policy.
Compression : The Compression policy attribut specifies that software compression be used for backups of this policy. Compression reduces the size of a backup by reducing the size of files in that backup. In turn, this decreases the amount of media required for storage. Because the compression and subsequent expansion is performed on the client, compression also decreases the amount of data going over the network and therefore the network load. Disadvantages of compression are that it increases computing overhead on the client and also increases backup time
Encryption :The Encryption policy attribute is selectable only if the NetBackup Encryption option is installed and configured. When the Encryption attribute is selected, the server encrypts the backup for the clients listed in the policy.
Collect Disaster Recovery Information :The Collect Disaster Recovery Information policy attribute specifies whether or not you want NetBackup to collect the information required for intelligent disaster recovery during backups of Windows clients using this policy.
Schedules :
When creating or editing a schedule, policy schedule attributes appear on four tabs in the Add New Schedule or Change Schedule dialog. The tabs allow you to schedule the days or dates on which a task will run.
  • Attributes tab: Schedule the time and frequency at which a task will run, along with other scheduled attributes.
  • Start Window tab: Schedule the time on each day that a task will run.
  • Exclude Dates tab: Indicate the dates that you do not want a task to run.
  • Calendar Schedule Tab: Schedule the run days for a task by indicating specific dates, recurring weekdays, recurring days of the month.
Name :
Identifies the schedule and appears on screens and messages from NetBackup. Specify a name by typing in the box. The name must be unique.
Type of Backup :
The Type of Backup specifies the type of backup that a schedule will control. Click in the field and select from the drop-down list.
Full Backup : Backs up all the files that are specified in the backup selections list for the policy, regardless of when they were last modified or backed up. These backups occur automatically according to the criteria in the schedule. If you use incremental backups, you must also schedule full backups to perform a complete restore. If you’re performing a raw partition backup, you must select Full Backup.
Cumulative Incremental Backup : Backs up all files that are specified in the backup selections list that have changed since the last successful full backup.
Differential Incremental Backup : Backs up all files that are specified in the backup selections list for the policy that have changed since the last successful incremental or full backup.
User Backup : Initiated by the user through the client interface (Backup, Archive, and Restore interface) and backs up all files that the user specifies.
User Archive : Chapter 3, Managing Backup Policies Schedule Attributes Tab 147 Initiated by the user through the interface on the client and archives all files that the user specifies. An archive is a special type of backup that first backs up the file and then deletes it from the local disk if the backup is successful.
Application Backup : A backup type that applies to all database agent clients.
Automatic Backup : An automatic backup for all database agent clients, except NetBackup for Informix and Oracle.
Automatic Incremental Backup :An automatic incremental backup that applies only to NetBackup for Informix clients.
Automatic Cumulative Incremental Backup :An automatic cumulative incremental backup that applies only to NetBackup for Oracle clients.
Automatic Differential Incremental Backup :An automatic differential incremental backup that applies only to NetBackup for Oracle clients.
Automatic Full Backup : An automatic full backup that applies only to NetBackup for Informix and for Oracle clients.
Synthetic Backups : A synthetic full backup is a backup assembled from a previous, traditional (non-synthesized) full backup, and subsequent differential backups and/or a cumulative incremental backup. A client can then use the synthesized backup to restore files and directories in the same way that a client restores from a traditional backup.
Two types of synthetic backup images can be created: synthetic full and cumulative synthetic.
Instant Recovery Backups to Disk Only :The Instant Recovery Backups to Disk Only option is available when the Advanced Client option is licensed and installed , Perform Snapshot Backups is selected, Retain Snapshots for Instant Recovery is selected.
Calendar Schedule Type : Calendar-based scheduling allows administrators to specify run day options for a task.
Retries Allowed After Runday : Select Retries Allowed After Runday to have the scheduler attempt to complete this schedule until the backup is successful. With this option selected, the schedule will attempt to do this, even after a specified run day.
Frequency Schedule Type : Using the Frequency schedule type, administrators specify how much time must elapse between the successful completion of a scheduled task and the next attempt at the task.
Backup Frequency Determines Schedule Priority : If more than one automatic schedule is due for a client within a policy, the backup frequency determines the schedule that NetBackup uses
For example, NetBackup prioritizes the following three schedules in the order shown:
1.monthly_full (frequency is one month)
2.weekly_full (frequency is two weeks)
3.daily_incremental (frequency is one week)
Multiple Copies : Using the Multiple Copies option, NetBackup can create up to four copies of a backup simultaneously, provided that the storage units are on the same media server and there are sufficient resources available for each copy.
Override Policy Storage Unit : The Override Policy Storage Unit setting specifies whether to use the policy storage unit or another one for this schedule.
Override Policy Volume Pool : The Override Policy Volume Pool setting specifies whether to use the policy volume pool or another one for this schedule.
Retention : The Retention setting specifies how long NetBackup retains the backups it creates according to this schedule. When the retention period expires, NetBackup deletes information about the expired backup, making the files in the backups unavailable for restores.
Media Multiplexing : The Media Multiplexing setting specifies the number of jobs from this schedule that NetBackup can multiplex onto any one drive. Multiplexing sends concurrent backup jobs from one or several clients to a single drive and multiplexes the backups onto the media.
Final Destination Storage Unit : If the schedule is a relocation schedule, created as part of configuring a disk staging storage unit, a Final Destination Storage Unit must be indicated. A Final Destination Storage Unit is the name of the storage unit where the images are swept to from the disk storage unit.
Final Destination Volume Pool : If the schedule is a relocation schedule, created as part of configuring a disk staging storage unit, a Final Destination Volume Pool must be indicated. A Final Destination Volume Pool is the name of the volume pool where images are swept from the volume pool on the disk staging storage unit.
Start Window Tab : The Start Window tab provides controls for setting time periods during which NetBackup can start backups, archives, or disk staging relocation when using this schedule.
Exclude Dates Tab : Use the Exclude Dates tab to exclude specific dates from a schedule. You may want to exclude, for example, the dates of holidays.
Calendar Schedule Tab : The Calendar Schedule tab appears when Calendar is selected as the Schedule type on the Attributes tab of the Schedule dialog. Calendar-based scheduling provides several run day options for use in scheduling when a task will run.
Schedule by Specific Dates : A task can run on specific dates rather than follow a recurring schedule, and specific dates can be added to a recurring schedule. The Specific Dates run day option allows you to schedule specific dates on which your task will run. You can schedule specific dates in any month of any year up to and including December 31, 2037.
Schedule by Recurring Week Days : The Recurring Week Days option provides a matrix that lets you schedule a task for certain days of each week, weeks of each month, or days on particular weeks of the month.
Introduction to the Catalog Application
NetBackup catalogs are internal databases that contain information about the NetBackup configuration and backups. Backup information includes records of the files and the media on which the files were stored.
 The catalogs also contain information about the media and storage devices that are under the control of Media Manager.
NetBackup requires the catalog information in order to recover any backups that have been performed. Therefore, it is extremely important to configure catalog backups before using NetBackup for regular client backups, and to schedule the catalog backups to occur on a regular basis thereafter
The easiest way to configure NetBackup catalog backups is to use the Catalog Backup Wizard.
Catalog Attributes Tab : The Catalog Attributes tab contains general attributes for NetBackup catalog backups.
Media Server : The following setting applies only to NetBackup Enterprise Server: The Media Server setting specifies the name of the NetBackup server to which catalogs backups will be sent.
Last Media Used : The Last Media Used setting shows the media ID (for Removable Media) or absolute pathname (for disk) that contains the last NetBackup catalog backup.
Media 1 and Media 2 Areas : The Media 1 and Media 2 Areas setting specifies the media to use for the catalog backups. You do not have to assign both Media 1 and Media 2. If you do assign both, NetBackup alternates between the media.
Catalog Schedule Tab : The Catalog Schedule tab contains selections concerning when you want to back up the catalogs.
After each session of scheduled, user, or manual backups : Backs up the catalogs after any session that results in the creation of at least one successful backup or archive. This includes automatic, manual, and user backups.
After each session of scheduled backups : Backs up the catalogs after any automatic backup session that results in at least one successful backup of a client. A backup does not occur after a manual backup or a user backup or archive.
Only when manually initiated : Does not automatically back up the catalogs. If you elect to back up catalogs manually, select NetBackup Management > Catalog. Right-click Catalog and select Back up NetBackup Catalog.
Catalog Files Tab : The Catalog Files tab contains the absolute pathnames to the catalog files to be backed up.
Catalog Pathnames : Applies only to NetBackup Enterprise Server: The pathname format depends on whether the catalog is on a master server or a remote media server. It also depends on whether the backup is sent to the master server or to a remote media server.
Introduction to the Activity Monitor
Use the Activity Monitor in the NetBackup Administration Console to monitor and control NetBackup jobs, services, processes, and drives. The Activity Monitor topology view displays the state and configuration of the entire NetBackup system being administered. The Activity Monitor displays only robots and drives that have storage units configured. If a device host has no configured devices, the device host is not displayed in the Activity Monitor either.
Reports Window : The Reports window contains a number of methods to make it easier for you to view report listings and manage report data.
Reports Settings : Use the report settings to specify the following criteria for building your report. Not all
settings are available for every report type.
Date/Time Range : Specify the time period that you want the report to cover. By default, the start time is one
day before the report is run and the end time is the time the report is run.
Select Earliest Available to include the earliest possible data available.
Select Current Time to include all data up to the present.
To set the date and time for all reports, click Set Defaults.
The Global host property, Keep Logs For, determines the period of time for which the
information is available.
Client : Click the Client box and select <All Clients> or the client to which the report will apply.
Media Server : Click the Media Server box and select <All Media Servers> or the name of the media
server to which the report will apply. The master server that is currently selected and its
media servers appear in the report.
Job ID : Specify the Job ID for which you want the report.
Media ID : For media types of reports, specify the media ID or All Media. The Media Contents report requires a specific ID
Volume Pool : For a media summary report, specify the volume pool name or All Volume Pools
.
Verbose Listing: Select Verbose Listing to have NetBackup provide more details in the Media Summary report.
Run Report : Click Run Report after you’ve selected the criteria for a report.
Stop Report : Click Stop Report if a report is running, but you don’t want to wait for it to finish.
NetBackup Report Types
Status of Backups Report : The Status of Backups report shows status and error information on jobs completed within the specified time period. If an error has occurred, a short explanation of the error is included.
Client Backups Report : The Client Backups report shows detailed information on backups completed within the specified time period
Problems Report : The Problems report lists the problems that the server has logged during the specified time period. The information in this report is a subset of the information obtained from the All Log Entries report.
All Log Entries Report : The All Log Entries report lists all log entries for the specified time period. This report includes the information from the Problems report and Media Log report. This report also shows the transfer rate, which is useful in determining and predicting rates and backup times for future backups.
Media Lists Report : The Media Lists report shows information for volumes that have been allocated for backups. This report does not show media for disk type storage units or for backups of the NetBackup catalogs.
Media Contents Report : The Media Contents report shows the contents of a volume as read directly from the media header and backup headers. This report lists the backup IDs (not each individual file) that are on a single volume. If a tape has to be mounted, there will be a longer delay before the report appears.
Images on Media Report : The Images on Media report lists the contents of the media as recorded in the NetBackup image catalog. You can generate this report for any type of media (including disk) and filter it according to client, media ID, or path.
Media Logs Report : The Media Logs report shows media errors or informational messages that are recorded in the NetBackup error catalog. This information also appears in the All Log Entries report.
Media Summary Report : The Media Summary report summarizes active and nonactive volumes for the specified server according to expiration date. It also shows how many volumes are at each retention level. In verbose mode, the report shows each media ID and its expiration date.
Media Written Report : The Media Written report identifies volumes that were used for backups within the specified time period. This report does not display volumes used for NetBackup catalog backups or volumes used for duplication if the original was created prior to the specified time period.
Servers Properties
The Servers properties display the NetBackup server list on selected master servers, media servers and clients. The server list displays the NetBackup servers that each host recognizes.
Master Server : The Master Server property specifies the master server for the selected host.
Additional Servers : Lists additional servers that can access the server specified as Master Server. During installation, NetBackup sets the master server to the name of the system where the server software is being installed.

Media Servers : The Media Servers list specifies that the listed machines are media servers only. Machines listed as media servers can back up and restore clients, but have limited administrative privileges.

NetBackup Troubleshoot


1. Log files
– NetBackup
Logs
/usr/openv/netbackup/logs
(Unix)
Install_path<install_path>\NetBackup\logs (Win)
– Unified
Logs
/usr/openv/logs
(Unix)
<install_path>Install_path<install_path><install_path>\NetBackup\logs
(Win)
– NetBackup Media Manager Logs
/usr/openv/volmgr/debug
(Unix)
<install_path>Install_path<install_path><install_path><install_path>\volmgr\debug
(win)

Obs.: Media manager Logs need be created.
Be aware with log
level, they can increase an fill the directory (File system) and the NetBackup
will stop to work.

2. Name
Resolution
You need ensure that name resolution is working correctly,
verify DNS and DNS reverse.

3. Commands
you can use for day by day trouble shooting

– Command to list
Process are
runing
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpps
-x

– All process
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpps -a

– List
Jobs
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd/bpdbjobs

<install_path><install_path><install_path>-
Command used to confirm the successful lookup of the client
name
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpclntcmd -hn
client_name
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpclntcmd -ip client_ip


Commands used to expire or to calculate a new retention for a
media
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpexpdate -m ACB001 -d 0
– Change
expiration of copy 2, does not afect copy
1
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpexpdate -backupid eel_0904219764 -d 12/20/2010
08:00:00
-copy 2
– If bpxpdate don’t work to expire the media execute the
command before use bpexpdate
/usr/openv/volmgr/bin/vmquery -deassignbyid
media_ID pool_number stat
– To check pool_number and
stat
/usr/openv/volmgr/bin/vmquery -m media_ID

– Command to list
configured Storage Units
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd/bpstulist
-L

– Command to list configured
Policies
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd/bppllist policy_name -L


Command used to perform operator functions on
drives
/usr/openv/volmgr/bin/vmoprcmd

– Command used to display media
status
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd/bpmedialist -rl 1

– Script to
make a media
report
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/goodies/available_media

<install_path><install_path><install_path>-
Command to unfreeze medias
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd/bpmedia
-unfreeze -m ACB001

– Text interactive menu to administrate NetBackup
when you can’t access the
GUI.
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpadm


Command to report media contents of a robotic
library
/usr/openv/volmgr/bin/vmcheckxxx -rt tld -rn 1 -list

– Command
to inventory a robotic library
/usr/openv/volmgr/bin/vmupdate -rt tld -rn 1
-full [-interactive] -use_barcode_rules

– Command to manager EMM server –
bee careful using this
command
/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/admincmd/nbemmcmd
This command can be
used to list servers, medias, include new servers see nbemmcmd (1M)

– To
delete a media manger
nbemmcmd -deletehost -machinename media_server
-machinetype media

– To delete a tape
nbemmcmd -deletemedia -mediaid
ABC001 -originhost server

– To tell you if which boxes are have a
emmserver and if they are reachable
nbemmcmd -getemmserver

– Will let
you know if there are any media conflicts
nbemmcmd -listmedia
-conflicts

– Will let you know what hosts are seen as media_managers and
master servers
nbemmcmd
-listhosts
<install_path><install_path><install_path>
4. Sybase trouble
shooting
<install_path><install_path><install_path>-
Database Files
/usr/openv/db/data
(Unix)
<install_path>Install_path<install_path><install_path><install_path><install_path>\NetBackupDB\data
(Windows)

– Binary Files
/usr/openv/db/bin
(Unix)
<insttall_path>Install_path\NetBackup\bin (win)

– To create a
blank DBDB database for the recovery
http://seer.entsupport.symantec.com/docs/284299.htm


Database Administration tool (since NetBackup 6.5.2)
/usr/openv/db/bin/dbadm
(Unix)
<install_path>\Veritas\NetBackup\bin\bpadm (Win)

Be careful to
use this tool, some operations can stop and destroy
database.

5. NetBackup Consistency Check (NBCC)
utility
The NBCC command executes the NBCC utility that is used
to confirm the integrity of portions of the NetBackup catalog related to tape
media. This check includes the review of configured storage units, 5.x volume
database hosts, 6.xEMMservers, tape media, and images associated with tape
media.
If NBCC detects
catalog inconsistencies, it generates a set of output files. It can create a
support package bundle of these files by using available system
utilities.
More information about the NBCC utility is available in the Using
NetBackup Utilities section of the NetBackup Troubleshooting Guide.

Netbackup Status codes


Veritas Netbackup Status Code

0 the requested operation was successfully completed
1 the requested operation was partially successful
2 none of the requested files were backed up
3 valid archive image produced, but no files deleted due to non-fatal problems
4 archive file removal failed
5 the restore failed to recover the requested files
6 the backup failed to back up the requested files
7 the archive failed to back up the requested files
8 unable to determine the status of rbak
9 an extension package is needed, but was not installed
10 allocation failed
11 system call failed
12 file open failed
13 file read failed
14 file write failed
15 file close failed
16 unimplemented feature
17 pipe open failed
18 pipe close failed
19 getservbyname failed
20 invalid command parameter
21 socket open failed
22 socket close failed
23 socket read failed
24 socket write failed
25 cannot connect on socket
26 client/server handshaking failed
27 child process killed by signal
28 failed trying to fork a process
29 failed trying to exec a command
30 could not get passwd information
31 could not set user id for process
32 could not set group id for process
33 failed while trying to send mail
34 failed waiting for child process
35 cannot make required directory
36 failed trying to allocate memory
37 operation requested by an invalid server
38 could not get group information
39 client name mismatch
40 network connection broken
41 network connection timed out
42 network read failed
43 unexpected message received
44 network write failed
45 request attempted on a non reserved port
46 server not allowed access
47 host is unreachable
48 client hostname could not be found
49 client did not start
50 client process aborted
51 timed out waiting for database information
52 timed out waiting for media manager to mount volume
53 backup restore manager failed to read the file list
54 timed out connecting to client
55 permission denied by client during rcmd
56 client’s network is unreachable
57 client connection refused
58 can’t connect to client
59 access to the client was not allowed
60 client cannot read the mount table
61 wbak was killed
62 wbak exited abnormally
63 process was killed by a signal
64 timed out waiting for the client backup to start
65 client timed out waiting for the continue message from the media manager
66 client backup failed to receive the CONTINUE BACKUP message
67 client backup failed to read the file list
68 client timed out waiting for the file list
69 invalid filelist specification
70 an entry in the filelist expanded to too many characters
71 none of the files in the file list exist
72 the client type is incorrect in the configuration database
73 bpstart_notify failed
74 client timed out waiting for bpstart_notify to complete
75 client timed out waiting for bpend_notify to complete
76 client timed out reading file
77 execution of the specified system command returned a nonzero status
78 afs/dfs command failed
79 unimplemented error code 79
80 Media Manager device daemon (ltid) is not active
81 Media Manager volume daemon (vmd) is not active
82 media manager killed by signal
83 media open error
84 media write error
85 media read error
86 media position error
87 media close error
88 Auspex SP/Backup failure
89 fatal error in Unitree file system
90 media manager received no data for backup image
91 fatal NB media database error
92 media manager detected image that was not in tar format
93 media manager found wrong tape in drive
94 cannot position to correct image
95 requested media id was not found in NB media database and/or MM volume database
96 unable to allocate new media for backup, storage unit has none available
97 requested media id is in use, cannot process request
98 error requesting media (tpreq)
99 NDMP backup failure
100 system error occurred while processing user command
101 failed opening mail pipe
102 failed closing mail pipe
103 error occurred during initialization, check configuration file
104 invalid file pathname
105 file pathname exceeds the maximum length allowed
106 invalid file pathname found, cannot process request
107 too many arguments specified
108 invalid date format specified
109 invalid date specified
110 Cannot find the NetBackup configuration information
111 No entry was found in the server list
112 no files specified in the file list
113 unimplemented error code 113
114 unimplemented error code 114
115 unimplemented error code 115
116 unimplemented error code 116
117 unimplemented error code 117
118 unimplemented error code 118
119 unimplemented error code 119
120 cannot find configuration database record for requested NB database backup
121 no media is defined for the requested NB database backup
122 specified device path does not exist
123 specified disk path is not a directory
124 NB database backup failed, a path was not found or is inaccessable
125 another NB database backup is already in progress
126 NB database backup header is too large, too many paths specified
127 specified media or path does not contain a valid NB database backup header
128 unimplemented error code 128
129 unimplemented error code 129
130 system error occurred
131 client is not validated to use the server
132 user is not validated to use the server from this client
133 invalid request
134 unable to process request because the server resources are busy
135 client is not validated to perform the requested operation
136 unimplemented error code 136
137 unimplemented error code 137
138 unimplemented error code 138
139 unimplemented error code 139
140 user id was not superuser
141 file path specified is not absolute
142 file does not exist
143 invalid command protocol
144 invalid command usage
145 daemon is already running
146 cannot get a bound socket
147 required or specified copy was not found
148 daemon fork failed
149 master server request failed
150 termination requested by administrator
151 Backup Exec operation failed
152 required value not set
153 server is not the master server
154 storage unit characteristics mismatched to request
155 unused b
156 unused f
157 unused d
158 failed accessing daemon lock file
159 licensed use has been exceeded
160 authentication failed
161 Evaluation software has expired. See http://www.veritas.com for ordering information
162 unimplemented error code 162
163 unimplemented error code 163
164 unable to mount media because its in a DOWN drive or misplaced
165 NB image database contains no image fragments for requested backup id/copy number
166 backups are not allowed to span media
167 cannot find requested volume pool in Media Manager volume database
168 cannot overwrite media, data on it is protected
169 media id is either expired or will exceed maximum mounts
170 unimplemented error code 170
171 media id must be 6 or less characters
172 cannot read media header, may not be NetBackup media or is corrupted
173 cannot read backup header, media may be corrupted
174 media manager – system error occurred
175 not all requested files were restored
176 cannot perform specified media import operation
177 could not deassign media due to Media Manager error
178 media id is not in NetBackup volume pool
179 density is incorrect for the media id
180 tar was successful
181 tar received an invalid argument
182 tar received an invalid file name
183 tar received an invalid archive
184 tar had an unexpected error
185 tar did not find all the files to be restored
186 tar received no data
187 unimplemented error code 187
188 unimplemented error code 188
189 the server is not allowed to write to the client’s filesystems
190 found no images or media matching the selection criteria
191 no images were successfully processed
192 unimplemented error code 192
193 unimplemented error code 193
194 the maximum number of jobs per client is set to 0
195 client backup was not attempted
196 client backup was not attempted because backup window closed
197 the specified schedule does not exist in the specified class
198 no active classes contain schedules of the requested type for this client
199 operation not allowed during this time period
200 scheduler found no backups due to run
201 handshaking failed with server backup restore manager
202 timed out connecting to server backup restore manager
203 server backup restore manager’s network is unreachable
204 connection refused by server backup restore manager
205 cannot connect to server backup restore manager
206 access to server backup restore manager denied
207 error obtaining date of last backup for client
208 failed reading user directed filelist
209 error creating or getting message queue
210 error receiving information on message queue
211 scheduler child killed by signal
212 error sending information on message queue
213 no storage units available for use
214 regular bpsched is already running
215 failed reading global config database information
216 failed reading retention database information
217 failed reading storage unit database information
218 failed reading class database information
219 the required storage unit is unavailable
220 database system error
221 continue
222 done
223 an invalid entry was encountered
224 there was a conflicting specification
225 text exceeded allowed length
226 the entity already exists
227 no entity was found
228 unable to process request
229 events out of sequence – image inconsistency
230 the specified class does not exist in the configuration database
231 schedule windows overlap
232 a protocol error has occurred
233 premature eof encountered
234 communication interrupted
235 inadequate buffer space
236 the specified client does not exist in an active class within the configuration database
237 the specified schedule does not exist in an active class in the configuration database
238 the database contains conflicting or erroneous entries
239 the specified client does not exist in the specified class
240 no schedules of the correct type exist in this class
241 the specified schedule is the wrong type for this request
242 operation would cause an illegal duplication
243 the client is not in the configuration
244 main bpsched is already running
245 the specified class is not of the correct client type
246 no active classes in the configuration database are of the correct client type
247 the specified class is not active
248 there are no active classes in the configuration database
249 the file list is incomplete
250 the image was not created with TIR information
251 the tir information is zero length
252 unused TIR error 2
253 unused TIR error 1
254 server name not found in the bp.conf file
255 unimplemented error code 255

History of Netbackup


 

In 1987, Chrysler Corporation engaged Control Data Corporation to write a backup software solution. A small group of engineers (Rick Barrer, Rosemary Bayer, Paul Tuckfield and Craig Wilson) wrote the software. Other Control Data customers later adopted it for their own needs.
In 1990, Control Data formed the Automated Workstation Backup System business unit. The first version of AWBUS supported two tape drives in a single robotic carousel with the SGI IRIX operating system.
In 1993, Control Data renamed the product to BackupPlus 1.0 (this is why many NetBackup commands have a ‘bp’ prefix). Software improvements included support for media Volume Management and Server Migration/Hierarchical Storage Management.
In late 1993, Openvision acquired the product and Control Data’s Storage Management 12-person team. This is why, on UNIX platforms, NetBackup installs into /usr/openv. During this time, Open Vision renamed Backup Plus to NetBackup.
On May 6, 1997 Veritas acquired Openvision, including absorption of the NetBackup product line.
In 2005 Symantec acquired Veritas and NetBackup became a Symantec product. Also at that time, Symantec released NetBackup 6.0, the 30th version of the software.

How do you configure NetBackup to work with NDMP?


This answer assumes the hostname of your NDMP box is “toaster” and the hostname of your Master Server is “dumpster”

Do the following: 1) Login to dumpster as root, and install the NDMP packages (SUNWnbdmp). If you are not aware, you have to purchase the NDMP option from Veritas for NetBackup. You get the NDMP package, documentation.

2) Set your NDMP authorization: dumpster# /usr/openv/volmgr/bin/set_ndmp_attr -auth toaster root It will ask you for a Password, and enter toaster’s password.

3) Put the following line in /usr/openv/netbackup/bp.conf: ALLOW_NDMP

4) Connect toaster to one of the drives in your Jukebox, and reboot it so it can recognize the drive. Unfortunately, NetApps dont have drvconfig or alike. Check to make sure the drive is recognized after reboot: toaster % sysconfig -t This will show you the drive, and all device files you can use with it. I normally use the norewind device nrst0a. (or b.. whatever comes up in sysconfig’s output)

5) On toaster, start the ndmpd daemon. ndmpd daemon comes with DataONTAP so it should be there (atleast in recent versions). To start ndmpd, do toaster % ndmpd on To see the usage of ndmpd, just enter ndmpd.

6) Come back to your master server (dumpster), and add the NDMP drive: Pull up xdevadm, select DRIVES -> ADD DRIVE. This will pull up the ADD DRIVE window. In that window, select/provide the following information: DRIVE TYPE: DLT (or whatever type your drive is)

DRIVE INDEX: 0 (or any number of your choice)

DRIVE NAME: toaster_jukeboxname_drive# (or what ever you like)

NO REWIND DEVICE: toaster:nrst0a

DRIVE STATUS: UP

CLEANING FREQUENCY: 300 (or what ever you like)

ROBOTIC DRIVE: YES

ROBOT TYPE: TLD (or what ever type your Jukebox is)

ROBOT NUMBER: <your robot’s number>

ROBOT DRIVE: thats connected to toaster>

At this point, you’re ready to test NDMP backups. Use xbpadm to create a class of type NDMP, and include toaster as client, and a sample directory under file list. Create a schedule “manual_backup” dont put any regular dates on it, and start a manual backup of that NDMP class for toaster and see how it goes.

You do not have to install any software on toaster. All you need to do is start ndmpd. You want to put that in its rc file so its started every time its rebooted.

The Criticality of RTO and RPO


Frequent readers of this blog know that I am obsessed with data protection in general and data restoration specifically.  Obviously these two elements are critical for today’s data-intensive businesses and there are a multitude of vendors providing solutions to address these challenges.  It can be difficult to assess the benefits of a given approach and the concepts of Recovery Time Objective(RTO) and Restore Point Objective(RPO) are useful metrics to consider when analyzing the benefits of different solutions.  In this blog entry, I will discuss these two measures and why they are relevant to your organization.

Recovery Time Objective

This is a critical metric for illustrating the risk of potential downtime.  SNIA defines the term as follows:

The maximum acceptable time period required to bring one or more applications and associated data back from an outage to a correct operational state

 

Thus RTO is a measure of how fast data can be recovered.  As you can imagine, there are a range of options for reducing RTO and in general, the shorter the RTO, the higher the cost.  Common solutions for RTO reduction include, disk-based backup, CDP technology and array-based snapshots.  Each of those approaches bring a benefits in RTO, but may add capital expense and operational complexity.

The other element to consider is that not all applications should be treated the same.  For example, RTO requirements on a mission-critical Oracle database are likely to be very different from those on filers holding personal data.  In the former case, a lengthy outage could dramatically impact the business while in the latter, it could cause annoyance with a minimal business impact.

When considering a solution you should look at its RTO metrics and analyze how they align with your business objectives.  Additionally, remember that RTO and product cost are often inversely related and so while a short RTO might be nice for all applications, the resulting costs may not meet your budgetary requirements.

Recovery Point Objective

RPO addresses the granularity of recovery and the frequency of backup.  SNIA defines it as follows:

The maximum acceptable time period prior to a failure or disaster during which changes to data may be lost as a consequence of recovery.

The question to ask yourself is, “how much data can I afford to lose if an outage were to occur.”  In the traditional nightly backup model, you are potentially at risk of losing up to 24 hours worth of data.  You could reduce the RPO by performing more frequent backups during the day.  Alternative approaches include CDP or snapshots.  However, these can add cost and complexity.

Like RTO, RPO requirements can vary by application.  Critical applications with large change rates may require shorter RPOs versus infrequently changing lower tier applications.  Meeting these divergent needs typically requires different approaches to creating data backups.  However, in general the more granular the RPO, the more expensive the solution.  Thus, RPO must be reviewed in the context of application criticality and budget.

Summary

RTO and RPO are critical metrics for today’s data protection environments, and choosing the appropriate approach requires a detailed understanding of the environment and business objectives.  It is often useful to combine solutions to achieve RTO and RPO requirements while managing total costs.  A classic example is utilizing frequently daily snapshots for short-term RPO and RTO while still relying on full backups nightly for longer term retention.  The full backups enable you to limit the number of snapshots retained which can reduce costs and environment complexity.  A SEPATON solution can address these challenges by improving RTO in the traditional backup process and potentially improving RPO by allowing for less impactful intraday backups.  It will provide these benefits at a cost that is much less than alternative approaches.

Vmware files to be backed up


We need to backup the .vmdk, .vmx, and .nvram in order to restore a full virtual server. I have listed below what these files are for.

.VMDK- These represent each virtual hard drive (ie C: E

.VMX- The main configuration file. Has info on OS type, SCSI controller type, NIC,etc

.NVRAM- Is the virtual BIOS settings

Linear Tape-Open(LTO)


Linear Tape-Open (or LTO) is a magnetic tape data storage technology originally developed in the late 1990s as an open standards alternative to the proprietary magnetic tape formats that were available at the time. Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Seagate initiated the LTO Consortium, which directs development and manages licensing and certification of media and mechanism manufacturers. Seagate’s tape division was spun-off as Certance and is now part of Quantum Corp.

The standard form-factor of LTO technology goes by the name Ultrium, the original version of which was released in 2000 and could hold 100 GB of data in a cartridge. A version released in 2010 can hold 1.5 TB in a cartridge of the same size.

 

Ultrium

Lto-logo.pngLto-ultrium-logo.png

LTO Ultrium was developed as a (more or less) drop-in replacement for DLT and has a similar design of 12-inch wide tape in a (slightly smaller) single reel cartridge. This made it easy for robotic tape library vendors to convert their DLT libraries into LTO libraries.

  • An Ultrium cartridge’s dimensions are 102.0 × 105.4 × 21.5 mm.[5]
  • An Ultrium drive reads data from a cartridge in its own generation and at least the two prior generations.
  • An Ultrium drive writes data to a cartridge in its own generation and to a cartridge from the immediate prior generation in the prior generation format.

Generations

As of 2011 LTO-5 was the latest generation; further generations are planned as tabulated below.

Generation
Attribute LTO-1 LTO-2 LTO-3 LTO-4 LTO-5 LTO-6 LTO-7 LTO-8
Release Date 2000 2003 2005 2007 2010 TBA[6] TBA TBA
Native Data Capacity 100 GB 200 GB 400 GB 800 GB 1.5 TB[7] 2.5 TB[8] 6.4 TB[6] 12.8 TB[6]
Max Speed (MB/s) 20 40 80 120 140 160 315[6] 472[6]
Compression Capable? Yes “2:1” Planned “2.5:1”[6]
WORM Capable? No Yes Planned
Encryption Capable? No Yes Planned
Partition Capable? No (1 allowed) Yes (2 allowed) Planned
Tape Thickness 8.9 µm 8 µm 6.6 µm 6.4 µm
Tape Length 609 m 680 m 820 m 846 m
Tape Tracks 384 512 704 896 1280
Write Elements 8 16[7]
Wraps per Band 12 16 11 14 20[7]
Linear Density (bits/mm) 4880 7398 9638 13,250 15,142[9]
Encoding RLL 1,7 RLL 0,13/11; PRML RLL 32/33; PRML
  • LTO-1
    • First commercially available in September 2000.[10]
    • Ultrium-1 specification is now Standard ECMA-319[11]
    • Initial capacity of 100 GB.
    • Initial data transfer speed of 20 MB/s (maximum)
    • Tape encoding is RLL 1,7
  • LTO-2
    • First mechanisms approved in February 2003.[12] First media approved in March 2003.[13]
    • Doubled capacity to 200 GB.
    • Increased data transfer speed to 40 MB/s (maximum).
    • Switched to PRML encoding
  • LTO-3
    • First media approved in November 2004.[14]
    • Doubled capacity to 400 GB.
    • Increased data transfer speed to 80 MB/s (maximum).
    • Introduced WORM feature.
    • Doubled number of write elements in head.
  • LTO-4
    • First mechanisms approved in April 2007.[15] First media approved in May 2007.[16]
    • Doubled capacity again to 800 GB.
    • Increased data transfer rate to 120 MB/s (maximum).
    • Introduced drive level encryption feature using 256-bit AES-GCM.
  • LTO-5
    • Specifications announced January 19, 2010. The first LTO-5 drives appeared on the market in Q2, 2010.[17]
    • Nearly doubled capacity to 1.5 TB (1500 GB)
    • Increased data transfer rate to 140 MB/s (maximum).
    • Introduced partition feature that allows tape to be “split” into two separately writable areas. This feature is required by LTFS.[18] [19]
  • LTO-6
    • Licensing Specifications announced June 11, 2012. [8]
    • Increased capacity to 2.5 TB
    • Increased data transfer rate to 160 MB/s (max).
    • Increased estimated data-compression ratio due to a larger compression buffer.
    • Colors

      The colors of LTO Ultrium cartridge shells are mostly consistent, though not formally standardised. HP is the notable exception. Sometimes similar, rather than identical, colors are used by different manufacturers (slate-blue and blue-grey; green, teal, and blue-green).

      Vendor UCC LTO-1 LTO-2 LTO-3 LTO-4 LTO-5
      Compliance-verified media manufacturers
      EMTEC Black Black Purple
      FujiFilm Black Black Purple Slate-blue Green Dk red[33]
      Imation Black Purple Blue-grey Teal Dk red[34]
      Maxell Gray Black Purple[35] Blue-gray[36] Teal Dk red[37]
      Sony Black Black Purple Gray Green Dk red[38]
      TDK Gray Black Purple Blue-grey Blue-green Dk red[39]
      Other brands
      DELL Blue-grey Teal Dk red
      HP Orange Blue Dark red Yellow Green[40] Lt blue[41]
      IBM Black Black Purple Slate blue[42] Green
      Overland Teal
      Quantum Black Black Purple Blue Green Dk red
      RPS Black Purple
      StorageTek Purple Green
      Tandberg Grey Black Purple Blue-grey Teal Dk red
      Verbatim Black Purple Blue-grey

Media types


Storage Media Hard Disks DVD Disc
Optical Discs Tape Media Flash Drive
Zip Catridges RAID Removable Media
(U)niversal (B)us (S)erial

What is a Tape Media?

A tape drive is a peripheral hardware device that reads and writes data into non-volatile magnetic tapes. A magnetic tape that resembles a conventional audio cassette tape, contains a magnetized coating on a thin plastic strip which data is written on.

Unlike dynamic and random storage mediums such as hard disks and flash drives, a tape drive operates using indexing and sequential-access. You have to run a tape from beginning to the end to perform a read or write operation. This means that data is written to the tape in one continuous stream.

To read a particular piece of information, the tape must wind past all preceding data to access it. Quite simply, a tape drive is like a cassette recorder that stores large volumes of digital data. Due to its cost efficiency and long shell life, tape drive makes a popular device for backup and archival purposes.

 

How Does it Work?

A tape drive uses a controlled motor to wind the tape from one reel to another with its magnetic strip passing a read/write head.

To cope with the difference between the rate which data is written into the tape and the data streaming to or from the computer or host, the tape drives incorporates a tape drive controller, which performs buffer procedures and logical operations such as ECC (Error Correction Code) during the data storage process.

During a backup process, the computer memory buffer is loaded with the data information from the host computer and sent to the controller’s buffer. The controller then commands the recording mechanism to write the data into tape. When it completes, more data is loaded into the controller buffer from the computer and the cycle repeats itself until all data has been completely stored.

Storage capacity of tape drives range from a few hundred megabytes to several Terabytes compressed. They support compression capability and transfer rate of over 500MB/s. Tape drives are interoperable and usually connected to the computer via SCSI, IDE, USB and Firewire.

 Back to Top

Tape Drive comes in several formats or standards:

AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape)
AIT is 8mm across and uses helical scanning technique and the MIC (Memory In Cassette) technology to provide increased access. It also supports high data transfer rate up to 78 MB/sec and maximum storage capacity of 500GB compressed using ALDC (adaptive lossless data compression) technologies.

 

DAT (Digital Audio Tape)
DAT is 4mm across and offers over 40GB of storage at a data transfer speed of about 5 Mb per second and is optimized for high volume backups.

 

DLT (Digital Linear Tape)

DLT uses a technique to write data onto the tape in 128 or 208 linear tracks. DLT cartridges can contain around 70GB of data with compression. SuperDLT, a new DLT variant supports tape capacity up to 300GB(SDLT 600) and transfer data at speeds up to 36MB/sec.

 

LTO (Linear Tape-Open)

LTO uses an open-format technology that provides compatibility to various storage media products. It supports a capacity up to 6.4 Terabytes and transfer rate of 540MB/s.

 

Packet Tape

Packet Tape – available from VXA (tape manufacturer) has a capacity of 33GB native and 66GB compressed. It is an 8mm format and one that is commonly used by home-based business owners.

Tape Types


Linear Tape-Open (LTO)

This open-format technology was jointly developed by Hewlett-Packard Co., IBM and Seagate Removable Storage Solutions (now Certance LLC), beginning in 1997.

“Open” means that tapes and drives from different manufacturers are compatible with one another. Historically, tapes could often be read only by the drive that wrote them.

LTO uses linear, multichannel, serpentine (back-and-forth) recording on 0.5-in. tape with magnetic servo for error correction and hardware data compression. An embedded electronics module can store and retrieve usage and other information about a cartridge. LTO technology was originally announced in two variants, Accelis and Ultrium, aimed at speed and capacity, respectively. However, there was no demand for Accelis, and it has since been withdrawn.

Ultrium, a direct competitor to Super Digital Linear Tape (SDLT), uses a single tape spool inside a cartridge. The current second-generation Ultrium-2 tapes can store 200GB of data in native mode, or 400GB if compression is used. A March 2003 report by Gartner Inc. analyst Fara Yale states that more than twice as many Ultrium drives as SDLT drives were shipped in 2002.

Digital Linear Tape (DLT)

Developed by Digital Equipment Corp. in the 1980s, DLT is an adaptation of older reel-to-reel mainframe recording practice, where the removable media uses a single reel of tape and the drive handles the takeup end. According to the DLT Web site (www.dlttape.com), more than 2 million DLT drives have been sold, as well as over 90 million tape cartridges. In the most recent version, SDLT 320, optical lasers use servo tracks on the back of the tape to align the magnetic recording heads. Current SDLT drives can read older DLT media.

Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT)

Developed in 1996 by Sony Corp., AIT uses helical-scan recording on 8mm tape, similar to that used in Hi-8 video camcorders. With a higher bit density and narrower tape, AIT cassettes are smaller than other tape cartridges, allowing for tape libraries that hold more data but take up less space.

AIT’s small size makes it a good choice for organizations migrating from older systems based on the Digital Data Storage standard using digital audio tape. Sony is the only supplier of drives and media.

AIT cassettes include a memory chip inside the media cartridge to record and store format and file-location information. This lets AIT tapes load faster and cuts file search times in half.

AIT drives use IBM’s Advanced Lossless Data Compression (ALDC) technology, which offers compression averaging 2.6:1 across multiple data types, vs. the 2:1 average for normal compression. Super AIT (SAIT-1) is essentially the same as AIT-3, but it uses 0.5-in. tape, giving it 500GB native capacity.

Mammoth

Introduced in 1996 by Exabyte Corp., Mammoth is aimed at the midrange server market.

The latest Mammoth-2 drive uses a multichannel helical scanning head on 8mm tape, error-correction and ALDC compression.

VXA

A unique technology developed by Ecrix (now part of Exabyte), VXA reads and writes data in packets. It operates at variable speeds, so it can match the data transfer rate of the host and, unlike drives that operate at fixed speeds, it doesn’t have to stop and wait if the host is transferring data at a slower rate. That reduces wear on drives and media. VXA heads can read data from any physical location on the tape, without having to follow tracks from beginning to end.

Travan

Travan drives use a linear, single-channel recording on 0.25-in. tape. Its lower capacities and inexpensive hardware make it suitable for remote locations, small offices and individual workstation backups.

See additional Computerworld QuickStudies

Enterprise Tape Formats

Tape format Generation/ model Native storage, (GB) Compressed storage, (GB) Assumed compression ratio Data transfer,native, (MB/sec)
Data transfer, compressed, (MB/sec)
AIT SAIT-1
AIT-3
AIT-2
AIT-1
500
100
50
35
1,300
260
130
90
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
30
12
6
4
78
30
15
10
LTO Ultrium-2
Ultrium-1
200
100
400
200
2.0
2.0
35
20
70
40
DLT SDLT 320
SDLT 220
DLT8000
160
110
40
320
220
80
2.0
2.0
2.0
16
11
6
32
22
12
Value DLT DLT VS160
DLT VS80
80
40
160
80
2.0
2.0
8
3
16
6
VXA VXA-2
VXA-1
80
33
160
66
2.0
2.0
6
3
12
6
Mammoth Mammoth-2
Mammoth-1
60
20
150
40
2.5
2.0
12
3
30
6
Travan TR-7
TR-5
20
10
40
20
2.0
2.0
2
0.92
4
1.83

Compiled by Russell Kay for Computerworld, Aug. 3, 2003.

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