How to Write a Job Acceptance Letter

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Active Directory Questions

Network Interview Questions

Top 10 HR Interview Questions & How To Answer Them

Tell me about yourself.

Answer: Identify some of your main attributes and memorise them. Describe your qualifications, career history and range of skills, emphasising those skills relevant to the job on offer.

What have your achievements been to date?

A. Select an achievement that is work-related and fairly recent. Identify the skills you used in the achievement and quantify the benefit it had to the company. For example, ‘my greatest achievement has been to design and implement a new sales ledger system, bringing it in ahead of time and improving our debtors’ position significantly, saving the company £50,000 a month in interest’.

Are you happy with your career-to-date?

A: This HR interview question is really about your self-esteem, confidence and career aspirations. The answer must be ‘yes’, followed by a brief explanation as to what it is about your career so far that’s made you happy. If you have hit a career plateau, or you feel you are moving too slowly, then you must qualify your answer.

What is the most difficult situation you have had to face and how did you tackle it?

A: The purpose of this HR interview question is to find out what your definition of difficult is and whether you can show a logical approach to problem solving. In order to show yourself in a positive light, select a difficult work situation which was not caused by you and which can be quickly explained in a few sentences. Explain how you defined the problem, what the options were, why you selected the one you did and what the outcome was. Always end on a positive note.

What do you like about your present job?

A: This is a straightforward HR interview question. All you have to do is make sure that your ‘likes’ correspond to the skills required for the job on offer. Be enthusiastic; describe your job as interesting and diverse but do not overdo it – after all, you are looking to leave.

What do you dislike about your present job?

A: Be cautious with this answer to this HR interview question. Do not be too specific as you may draw attention to weaknesses that will leave you open to further problems. One approach is to choose a characteristic of your present company, such as its size or slow decision-making processes etc. Give your answer with the air of someone who takes problems and frustrations in your stride as part of the job.

 What are your strengths?

A: This is one HR interview question that you know you are going to get so there is no excuse for being unprepared. Concentrate on discussing your main strengths. List three or four proficiencies e.g. your ability to learn quickly, determination to succeed, positive attitude, your ability to relate to people and achieve a common goal. You may be asked to give examples of the above so be prepared.

What is your greatest weakness?

A: Do not say you have none in response to this HR interview question- this will lead to further problems. You have two options – use a professed weakness such as a lack of experience (not ability) on your part in an area that is not vital for the job.

The second option is to describe a personal or professional weakness that could also be considered to be strength and the steps you have taken to combat it. An example would be: “I know my team think I’m too demanding at times – I tend to drive them pretty hard but I’m getting much better at using the carrot and not the stick”.

Why do you want to leave your current employer?

A: in response to this HR interview question state how you are looking for a new challenge, more responsibility, experience and a change of environment. Do not be negative in your reasons for leaving. It is rarely appropriate to cite salary as your primary motivator.

Why have you applied for this particular job?

A: Through this HR interview question the employer is looking for evidence that the job suits you, fits in with your general aptitudes, coincides with your long-term goals and involves doing things you enjoy.  Make sure you have a good understanding of the role and the organisation, and describe the attributes of the organisation that interest you most.


Most Common VMware Interview Questions

Most Common VMware Interview Questions

Here is a list of commonly asked VMware interview questions

1. Tell me about your current virtualization environment and what is your day to day activity as a VMware administrator.

2. What is the backup solution you are using in your environment and how does it backs up your environment.

3. Do you have any idea P2V, how to perform P2V. please Explain.

4. How do you patch the ESXi host and VMs, explain the Update Manager.

5. Tell me the process to find out the RCA for PSOD of an ESXi host.

6. How to enable the Memory ballooning for a VM.

7. I got a request from Application team that they need a server basically running with SQL DB, which will require 3 network VLAN, eg – Backup, end user and replication. What you will ask your network team to configure their physical switch and what configuration you will made on VC ( networking level). Please explain.

8. How to connect a USB drive to a virtual machine.

9. What is the command to get all snapshot details lying on a datastore.

10. What is RAID 6.

11. Tell me the maximum number of snapshot in a VM.

12. Suppose you have one cluster of 2 ESXi host, where on one host, particular one VM is consuming the high CPU and Memory usage, and creating the performance crunch on another VMs on that host, how you’ll fix the issue.

13. What are the storage technologies? Please explain.

14. What are the difference between iSCSI, FC, FCOE and NFS. Please explain.

15. What is zoning and masking.

16. What is required for zoning and masking.

17. What are the networking Bandwidth options available in VMware? i.e. – on vSwicth level.

18. What is the port number for iSCSI.

19. In case my VC goes down, does HA and DRS will work? Please explain.

20. What is the command to force power off a VM. 21. What is FT and What are the minimum requirement for FT. 22. What technology behind the HA? 23. How to repair the disk descriptor header file.

24. How to configure syslog server

25. ESXi disconnection issue, what is the command to fix the disconnected host.

26. Linked mode VC.

27. Difference between esxi 4 & esx5

28. what happen if vmotion stops in between 10% and how to fix it?

29. Difference between vmotion and storage Vmotion.

30. what happen if a host is being removed from a cluster and what about those VMs running on that host?

31. P2V and V2V, what is the requirement of this, why we use V2V and how to do V2V.

32. What is a Clone and linked clone, what is the use for linked clone.

33. How to restart the Vcenter service using the command prompt.

34. How to check the vm lock issue and how to fix it.


P2v Entire Steps

ESX Building procedure

Escalation Procedure

Server Down issues

Service Down issues

Performance issues procedure

Backup Procedure


-Weekly-Full Backup

Antivirus Console

Monitoring Tools


How to upgrade VM

How to upgrade VM with out using update manger

Snapshot…sizes ….SNAP SHOT MGR

Deploy the vm..from ISO & Template

HA & drs




VM Notresponding unable to reboot

Hostd is not running how to fix


what is system attendent

cluster ….how to configure

vmware with MSCS





































  1. How Many Max Host Failures in a cluster?
  2. How do know where vm migrating if Cluster fail?
  3. How many iScsi targets in a cluster?
  4. How VMotion works? backend process
  5. P2V Migration
  6. FSMO Roles, IF PDC EMULAT Fails?
  7. Port Groups
  8. If mac address change is in Reject wt happen?
  9. Linux Console Version
  10. RDM
  11. Datastores
  12. How can you configure diffrent types of datastores on ESX 2.5
  13. How can u deploy vms From template?
  14. Snap shot
  15. What is the most difficult VMWare related issue you ever faced?
  16. VCB


  • What is virtualization ?
  • What is Esx Host and Esxi Host ?
  • What is Vcenter Server ?
  • What is Vsphere Client ?
  • What is Vsphere WEB Client?
  • What is Hypervisor ?
  • What is type 1 and type 2 Hypervisor ?
  • What is VMkernel ?
  • what are the features of vsphere ?
  • Vsphere product editions?
  • Why Choose Vmware Vsphere?
  • Tell me about yourself?
  • How many years’ experience in VMware?
  • How many servers you have handling and which versions you’re using in you organization?
  • What is difference between in ESX and ESXI?
  • How many network cards in your host. How to configure this network card s?
  • What is port group?
  • Which network load balance in your using in organization?
  • What is DRS? What is pre-requisition?
  • We have the two host each host have the capacity of running 100 virtual machine but  one host having the 8 virtual machines and another  host having the 2 virtual machines it’s load balancing or load un balancing?
  • What is the option in DRS Cluster configuration? Explain the difference
  • We need to send the traffic form all network card which load balance you’re using?
  • If one of host is not responding how to check it?Birlasoft———–

Major Differences Between Vmware Clone Template Snapshot


  • Clone Creates a Duplicate copy of Virtual Machine.
  • Clone is used for Backup, R&D and to create Multiple Virtual Machines.
  • Clone requires equal amount of space in the data store.
  • A cloned VM will have same IP address and SID (Secure Identification)
  • we have change them before bringing them in to the network.

Template :

  • Its a Master copy of a Virtual Machine.
  • The main use of template is to create multiple Virtual Machines.
  • it creates .vmtx file
  • template cannot be powered on.

Snapshot :

  • Snapshot captures the entire state of the VM when we take snapshot.
  • Like settings, Disk, and the Memory.
  • Snapshot lets you to reserve the state of VM, So that we can return back to the particular state.
  • It is used for testing and upgrading of a VM application and the changes we have done.

VMware vSphere Interview Questions

VMware infrastructure become very large day by day and VMware is keep on integrating new technologies to their newer vSphere releases.   Its becoming quite difficult for VMware  newbies to understand the technology and  product completely.  This article will answer many questions for VMware beginners about the VMware vSphere product offerings and features.I have not explained  the products and features very deeply but this one line answers will help you  on interviews to keep your answer short and sweet.

1.What are the products included in VMware vSphere 5.5 Bundle ?

  • VMware ESXi
  • VMware vCenter Server
  • VMware vSphere Client and Web Client
  • vSphere Update Manager
  • VMware vCenter Orchestrator

2.What type of Hyper-visor VMware ESXi is ?

  • VMware ESXi is Bare-metal hypervisor. You can directly install on server hardware.
VMware Hypervisor
VMware Hypervisor

3.What is the role of VMware vCenter server?

  • vCenter provides a centralized management platform and framework for all ESXi hosts and their respective VMs. vCenter  server allows IT administrators to deploy, manage, monitor, automate, and secure a virtual infrastructure in a centralized fashion. To help provide scalability , vCenter Server leverages a back-end database (Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle are both supported, among others) that stores all the data about the hosts and VMs.
vCenter Server - Overview
vCenter Server – Overview

4. Is it possible install vCenter server on Linux hosts ?

  • No.But Pre-build vCenter appliance is available in VMware portal which is Linux based.You can import the appliance as virtual machine.

5.How to update the VMware ESXi hosts with latest patches ?

  • We can update the ESXi hosts using VMware Update Manager(VUM). We can use this VUM add-on package on Windwos based vCenter server and Linux based vCenter server (vCenter appliance)

6.What is the use of VMware vSphere Client and vSphere Web Client ?

  • vCenter Server provides a centralized management framework to VMware ESXi hosts.To access vCenter server, you need vSphere client or vSphere Web client service enabled.
vSphere Client
vSphere Client

7.What is the difference between vSphere Client and vSphere web client ?

  • vSphere Client is traditional utility which provides user interface to vCenter server. But from VMware vSphere 5 onwards,vSphere web client   is a primary interface to manage vCenter server.For vSphere client, you need install small utility .But vSphere Web client doen’t require any software. You can directly connect using web browser.But still VUM is managed through vSphere Client .

vSphere Client:

vSphere Client - Login
vSphere Client – Login

vSphere web-client:

vSphere web client
vSphere web client

8.What is the use of VMware vCenter Orchestrator ?

  • vCneter Orchestrator is used for automation on various vSphere products.

9.What are the features included in VMware vSphere 5.5 ?

  • vSphere High Availabitliy (HA)
  • vSphere Fault Tolerance
  • vSphere vMotion
  • vSphere Storage vMotion
  • vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS)
  • virtual SAN (VSAN)
  • Flash Read Cache
  • Storage I/O Control
  • Network I/O Control
  • vSphere Replication

10.What is the use of vSphere High Availability(HA)? Where it can be applied ?

  • VMware vSphere HA minimize the VM’s unplanned downtime by restarting the VM guests on next available server ESXi node inacase of failure on current ESXI node. VMware HA must be enabled to reduce the VM unplanned downtime.
VMware HA
VMware HA

11. Will vSphere HA help on VM failures too ?

  • In an order to detect the VM failures, you need to enable VM Failure Monitoring. So that it detects the Disk I/O and sends the internal heartbeat to check the VM all the time. If the VM is stopped functioning, VM will be restarted automatically by vSphere HA.

12.What is the use of vMotion ?

  • Using vMotion feature,we can move the running VM’s from one ESXi host to another ESXi host without any downtime. vMotion copies the VM’s in-memory contents to the destination server and freeze the operation on current ESXi host and resumes the VM’s on remote ESXI node.
VMware vMotion
VMware vMotion

13.What is the use of Storage vMotion ?

  • vMotion is possible only when you have Shared storage like FC-SAN,ISCSI-SAN or NFS. If you want to move the VM from one datastore to another datastore without any downtime,then you need to perform storage vMotion.
vMotion and Storage vMotion
vMotion and Storage vMotion

Note: You can perform the vMotion and Storage vMotion together without any downtime.

14.Why vMotion feature is not used/can’t use in vSphere HA ?

  • vMotion is used for planned migrations and possible only where the source and destination ESXI hosts are running properly.vSPhere HA is used to reduce the downtime due to failures of physical ESXi hosts.So When the failure accours on ESXi nodes, there is no time to perform vMotion and can’t be used.

15.Is there any way to prevent the VM’s unplanned downtime using vSphere HA ?

  • Yes.You can prevent the unplanned downtime using vSphere falut tollerance along with vSphere HA.

16.How the vSphere Fault tolerance(FT) works ?

  • Using vLockstep technology , vSphere FT maintains the mirrored secondary VM on different ESXi physical host that is kept in lockstep with the primary.So when the primary ESXi node goes down due to hardware issue, secondary VM will immediately step-in and provide the service. At this point, this VM will become primary and secondary aka mirrored VM will be created on possible ESXI host to prevent the further ESXi failure.
VMware Fault Tolerance (FT)
VMware Fault Tolerance (FT)

17.What is vSphere DRS(Distributed Resource Scheduler) ? How it works ?

  • vSphere DRS is an intelligent frame works which always monitors the cluster nodes health check and performs the vMotion automatically whenever required. For an example ,if one of the ESXI cluster host memory has been utilized more than 90% and due to that lot of paging happening on that server. vSphere DRS detects such things in quick time and moves few VM’s to another ESXi cluster to least-balance the cluster nodes without any downtime by leveraging vMotion functionality. It applies for high contention for CPU utilization too. So vSphere DRS helps to balance the CPU & Memory utilization across the ESXi cluster nodes.
Vmware DRS
Vmware DRS

18. What is vSphere storage DRS ? How it works ?

  • vSphere Storage DRS like vSphere DRS but it applies to storage.It helps to balance storage utilization and performance between data-stores on same ESXi clusters.


`19.What is VSAN ? How it works ?

  • VSAN forms the storage pools across the multiple nodes using internal disks and allows you to create a datastores that spans multiple ESXI hosts. VSAN also protect the data using VM storage profiles and you can configure it according to your requirement. You need SSD’s(Solid State Drive) to configure VSAN. Click here to learn more about VSAN.
VSAN overview
VSAN overview

20.What is Flash Read Cache ?

  • vSphere 5.5 supports solid state drive through feature called Flash Read Cache.Using Flash Read Cache, you can assign a caching space to VM’s like how are you assigning like CPU,Memory and other resources to VM’s. Solid state drive can provide much better that IOPS compare to normal disks.
Flash Read Cache
Flash Read Cache

21.What is the use of Storage I/O Control in vSphere 5.5 ?

  • You can limit the number of IOPS for each VM.

22.What is the use of network I/O control ?

  • Its similar to storage I/O control but its controls the VM’s Network bandwidth.

23.What is vSphere Replication?

  • It replicates the complete VM from one datacenter to another datacenter on per VM basis Unlike hardware replication.
vSphere Replication
vSphere Replication

Hope I have mostly covered about all the vSphere products and it features in high level.

Share it ! Comment it !! Be Sociable!!!

Windows Active Directory

Q1.What do you mean by active directory? Tell us about the active directory restore methods.
Q2.How would you like to differentiate between Windows Installer and Software Installer?
Q3.Explain Empty Root Domain.
Q4.What do you mean by Group Policy? Can you tell us anything about a Group Policy Objective or GPO?
Q5.Mention the major Windows Server 2003 keyboard shortcuts.
Q6.What is Forest?
Q7.How would you like to differentiate between NTFS and FAT on a local machine? Tell us about the one major difference here.
Q8.Can you tell us anything about an NT 4 domain?
Q9.What is Garbage Collection?
Q10.How would you approach the installation of AD on a new server? Tell us about the major requirements here.
Q11.Tell us in detail about the guest accounts in Server 2003 and also mention how they are different from other editions.
Q12.What is Active Directory schema?
Q13.Tell us about LDAP in detail.
Q14.In Windows Server 2003 it is possible to restrict some things which could not be done in other editions. Tell us about them.
Q15.Tell us about a Mixed Mode in detail.
Q16.How can Exchange 2000 mailboxes be migrated to Exchange 2003?
Q17.How can you ascertain whether user accounts have local administrative access or not?
Q18.Tell us something about an NTFS partition.
Q19.Tell us in detail about the major differences between Server 2008 and Server 2003.
Q20.Where can GPMC be downloaded?
Q21.Tell us about the maximum number of unsuccessful logons which are permitted in the Administrator account.
Q22.Tell us about the Inter-Site Topology Generator or ISTG in detail.
Q23.How would you like to differentiate between Domain Controller and ADS?
Q24.Tell us about the possible reason/reasons why you might encounter problems with XP domain users while printing.
Q25.Tell us about Configure Partition and Schema Partition in detail.
Q26.How frequently do you think client policy needs to be refreshed? Is there any possible reason behind it?
Q27.Do you know anything about a DC restoration? Tell us the possible reason you cannot restore a DC, backed up four months back.
Q28.What do you know about IntelliMirror? State its function briefly.
Q29.What is Native Mode?
Q30.Tell us about sites.
Q31.Can you tell us anything about the directory service protocol/protocols?Q32.Partition Knowledge Table—- tell us something about it.
Q33.Tell us about the AD backup process.
Q34.What do you know about a datacenter server?
Q35.What is secedit?
Q36.Mention the hidden shares which are there on Windows Server 2000 Installation.
Q37.Tell us about an LDP or Label Distribution Protocol in detail.
Q38.What does administrative template conf.adm contain?
Q39.Can you detect the reason why NT4 clients are not able to connect to Windows 2000 domain?
Q40.Tell us about Distributed File System or DFS Installations.
Q41.State the kinds of objects which can be registered in DNS dynamically.
Q42.Can you tell us anything about Powershell?
Q43.How is it possible to manage MS cluster?
Q44.What do you know about System State Data?
Q45.What is cost value?
Q46.Tell us about the domains in the active directory.
Q47.Can you tell us briefly about the Universal Naming Convention or UNC?
Q48.Tell us about NETDOM and REPLMON.
Q49.What is Global Catalog?
Q50.What do you mean by Trust in the context of AD?



What is the difference in between SYSVOL and NETLOGON folders speaking of ACTIVE directory?






IN Active directory there are two critical folders which are shared by each domain controller. These folders are SYSVOL and NETLOGON.


SYSVOL, is used by the domain clients Windows 2X and upper versions to apply GPO ( Group Policies) When you create GPO from DC1 , the GPO gets put into this folder so that it can be replicated to other domain controllers within your Domain name space.

NETLOGON, is used by domain clients to obtain logon script, same goes for the logon scripts when you configure one logon script same scrip gets copied via network connectivity by FRS to other domain controllers

Now AD replication scope is Forest-wide, while SYSVOL replication scope will be Domain wide. The replication problems in AD may cause replication issues problems inconsistent SYSVOL and this will be bad effect to your environment.

FRS uses same connection objects and scheduled , except same site partners, Which Active directory replication uses, so no wonder when AD replication is having issues, so does SYSVOL replication gets effected by this problem. AD replication topology could lead to SYSVOL replication failure.



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