UNIX OS Flavors


The following is some of the well-known Unix flavors, with links to their official home pages.

AIX – IBM
BSD/OS (BSDi) – Wind River
CLIX – Intergraph Corp.
Debian GNU/Linux – Software in the Public Interest, Inc.
Tru64 Unix (formerly Digital Unix) –  Compaq Computer Corp.
DYNIX/ptx – IBM (formerly by Sequent Computer Systems)
Esix Unix – Esix Systems
FreeBSD – FreeBSD Group
GNU Herd – GNU Organization
HAL SPARC64/OS – HAL Computer Systems, Inc.
HP-UX – Hewlett-Packard Company
Irix – Silicon Graphics, Inc.
Linux – several groups several
LynxOS – Lynx Real-Time Systems, Inc.
MacOS X Server – Apple Computer, Inc.
NetBSD – NetBSD Group
NonStop-UX –  Compaq Computer Corporation
OpenBSD –  OpenBSD Group
OpenLinux –  Caldera Systems, Inc.
Openstep – Apple Computer, Inc.
Red Hat Linux – Red Hat Software, Inc.
Reliant Unix – Siemens AG
SCO Unix – The Santa Cruz Operation Inc.
Solaris – Sun Microsystems (now ORACLE)
SuSE – S.u.S.E., Inc.
UNICOS – Silicon Graphics, Inc.
UTS – UTS Global, LLC

Advertisements

240 Linux you have to TRY :)


Linux is all about freedom, experiments and versatility! We all know about popular Linux distros like Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Fedora, Redhat etc., but do you know that there are over 400 Linux distros! So if the adventurous geek inside you is still alive.

Absolute Linux Official website
AbulEdu Official website
AgiliaLinux Official website
aLinux Official website
Alpine Linux Official website
ALT Linux Official website
Antergos Official website
antiX Official website
aptosid Official website
Arch Linux Official website
ArchBang Linux Official website
Archie Official website
AriOS Official website
ArtistX Official website
AsteriskNOW Official website
Asturix Official website
AUSTRUMI Official website
AV Linux Official website
BackBox Linux Official website
Berry Linux Official website
BigLinux Official website
Bio-Linux Official website
blackPanther Official website
BlankOn Linux Official website
Bluewall GNULinux Official website
Bluewhite64 Linux Official website
Bodhi Linux Official website
BOSS Linux Official website
Bridge Linux Official website
CAELinux Official website
CAINE Official website
Calculate Linux Official website
Canaima Official website
Càtix Official website
CDlinux Official website
CentOS Official website
Chakra GNU/Linux Official website
ClearOS Official website
Clonezilla Official website
ComFusion Official website
CrunchBang Linux Official website
CRUX Official website
Damn Small Linux Official website
Debian Official website
DEFT Linux Official website
Descent|OS Official website
Devil-Linux Official website
DigAnTel Official website
DoudouLinux Official website
DragonFly BSD Official website
Dragora GNU/Linux Official website
DreamStudio Unity Official website
Easy Pease Official website
Edubuntu Official website
Ekaaty Official website
Elastix Official website
Elive Official website
Emmabuntüs Official website
Endian Firewall Official website
Epidemic GNU/Linux Official website
ExTiX Official website
Fedora Official website
Finnix Official website
Foresight Linux Official website
FreeBSD Official website
FreeNAS Official website
Frenzy Official website
Frugalware Linux Official website
Fusion Linux Official website
GALPon MiniNo Official website
GeeXboX Official website
Gentoo Official website
GhostBSD Official website
gNewSense Official website
GParted Official website
Greenie Linux Official website
Grml Official website
Guadalinex Official website
Hacao Linux Official website
Hanthana Linux Official website
Hybryde Linux Official website
IPCop Firewall Official website
IPFire Official website
ISlack Official website
Jibbed Official website
Jolicloud Official website
kademar Official website
Kahel OS Official website
Kali Linux Official website
KANOTIX Official website
Karoshi Official website
Kiwi linux Official website
Knoppix Official website
Kubuntu Linux Official website
Kwheezy Official website
Kwort Linux Official website
Leeenux Linux Official website
Legacy OS Official website
Liberté Linux Official website
Lightweight Portable Security Official website
LinEx Official website
LinHES Official website
Linpus Linux Official website
Linux Deepin Official website
Linux From Scratch Official website
Linux Lite Official website
Linux Mint Official website
LinuxConsole Official website
LliureX Official website
Lubuntu Official website
Lunar-Linux Official website
LuninuX OS Official website
LXLE Official website
m0n0wall Official website
Macpup Official website
Mageia Official website
MakuluLinux Official website
Mandriva Official website
Manjaro Linux Official website
MidnightBSD Official website
MINIX Official website
Momonga Linux Official website
Musix Official website
Mythbuntu Official website
NetBSD Official website
Netrunner Official website
NetSecL OS Official website
Network Security Toolkit Official website
NexentaStor Official website
NuTyX Official website
Ojuba Official website
OLPC OS Official website
OpenBSD Official website
OpenELEC Official website
OpenIndiana Official website
openmamba GNU/Linux Official website
OpenMediaVault Official website
openSUSE Official website
Openwall GNU*Linux Official website
Ophcrack Official website
Oracle Linux Official website
Oracle Solaris Official website
OS4 OpenLinux Official website
Overclockix Official website
Parabola GNU/Linux Official website
Pardus Official website
Parsix Official website
Parted Magic Official website
PC-BSD Official website
PCLinuxOS Official website
Pear OS Official website
Pentoo Official website
Peppermint OS Official website
pfSense Official website
PHLAK Official website
Pinguy OS Official website
Plamo Linux Official website
PLD Linux Distribution Official website
Plop Linux Official website
Point Linux Official website
Porteus Official website
Proxmox Official website
Puppy Linux Official website
PureOS Official website
Qomo Linux Official website
Qubes OS Official website
Quirky Official website
Raspbian Official website
Rebellin Linux Official website
Red Flag Linux Official website
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Official website
Redo Backup & Recovery Official website
Rocks Cluster Official website
ROSA Official website
Sabayon Linux Official website
SalentOS Official website
Saline OS Official website
Salix OS Official website
SchilliX Official website
Scientific Linux Official website
Semplice Linux Official website
siduction Official website
Simplicity Linux Official website
Skolelinux Official website
Slackel Official website
Slackware Official website
SLAX Official website
SliTaz GNU/Linux Official website
SME Server Official website
Smoothwall Official website
Snowlinux Official website
SolydXK Official website
Sophos Official website
Source Mage GNULinux Official website
SparkyLinux Official website
Springdale Linux Official website
Stella Official website
Super OS Official website
Superb Mini Server Official website
SuperX Official website
SUSE Official website
Swift Linux Official website
SystemRescueCD Official website
T2 Linux Official website
Tails Official website
Thinstation Official website
Tiny Core Linux Official website
Toorox Official website
Toutou Linux Official website
Trisquel GNU/Linux Official website
Tuquito Official website
Turbolinux Official website
TurnKey Linux Official website
UberStudent Official website
Ubuntu Official website
Ubuntu Christian Edition Official website
Ubuntu GNOME Official website
Ubuntu Privacy Remix Official website
Ubuntu Studio Official website
UbuntuKylin Official website
Ultimate Edition Official website
Unity Linux Official website
Univention Corporate Server Official website
Untangle Gateway Official website
Ututo Official website
VectorLinux Official website
VENENUX GNU/Linux Official website
Vine Linux Official website
Vinux Official website
VortexBox Official website
Voyager Live Official website
Vyatta Official website
wattOS Official website
Webconverger Official website
Wifislax Official website
Window Maker Live Official website
Xubuntu Official website
YellowDog Official website
ZevenOS Official website
Zorin OS Official website

Linux Run levels



Runlevels define what tasks can be accomplished in the current state (or runlevel) of a Linux system. Every Linux system supports three basic runlevels, plus one or more runlevels for normal operation. The basic runlevels are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Linux basic runlevels
Level Purpose
0 Shut down (or halt) the system
1 Single-user mode; usually aliased as s or S
6 Reboot the system
Beyond the basics, runlevel usage differs among distributions. One common usage set is shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Other common Linux runlevels
Level Purpose
2 Multiuser mode without networking
3 Multiuser mode with networking
5 Multiuser mode with networking and the X Window System

Linux Directory structure


linux dir structure

Kali Linux on VirtualBox step by step


You need to download the latest version of Kali Linux ISO from here.

You can also download from CDImage Page here:

I would personally suggest downloading using TORRENT and it seems more stable and less chance of data corruption.

In this guide I will outline very detailed step by step instructions on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox where Windows 7 is the HOST operating system.

In this guide, I will cover the followings:

  1. Create a new Virtual Machine
  2. Create a new Virtual disk (VDI, dynamic allocation etc.)
  3. Modifying some VirtualBox settings (allocating physical and Video memory, selecting OS Type, CPU acceleration etc.)
  4. Loading Kali ISO
  5. Booting Kali ISO (initial info, location, timezone etc.)
  6. Kali disk partitioning (you should try other ways than I’ve showed here to learn)
  7. Finalizing instllation and running Kali on VirtualBox.
  8. Install Virtualbox Guest Additions packages

Step 1: Create a new Virtual Machine

I’ve already given instructions and provided links on how to get VirtualBox and install that above. If you’ve missed it, go back and install VirtualBox.

Once you’ve installed VirtualBox,

  • Open it.
  • Click on New to create a New Virtual Machine.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (1)

 

Step 1.a: Enter a name for you VBox

Enter Kali Linux 1.0.6 as the name. You’ll see Type is set to Linux automagically and version will be Linux 2.3/3.x. We will fix those later. Click Next.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (2)

Step 1.b: Allocate Memory/RAM

Default memory size is 256 MB.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (3)

Change it to 1024 (1GB).

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (4)

Step 2: Create a Virtual Hard Drive

In this screen select “Create a virtual hard drive now” – 2nd option and click Create.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (5)

Step 2.a: Select Virtual Drive File type

On the next screen select “VDI” – VirtualBox Disk Image as your Hard Drive File Type. Click Next.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (6)

 

Step 2.b: Select Physical hard drive allocation type

Select Dynamically Allocated and click Next on Storage on Physical hard drive screen.
I will explain soon why we’ve chosen this.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (7)

 

Step 2.c: Allocate disk size

On “File location and size” screen, it will come up as 8.00 GB as default size and Kali Linux 1.0.6 as the name (which we’ve set on step 1.a).

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (8)

Change the Virtual Hard Drive size to 20.00 GB and Click Create.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (9)

 

Here’s the best part.. on step 2.b we’ve selected Dynamicallt Allocated for our Storage on Physical hard drives. That means, you’re not wasting 20.00 GB disk space straight way. Usual Kali Installation install just below 5.00 GB. In this way, you will use only that much space, but your Virtual Hard Disk can increase up to 20.00 GB if you put more and more stuffs in there. An example is to downloading big dictionary files to crack WiFi passwords using Pyrit
So, yes, give it some space, it also helps avoiding some pesky installation errors.

 

Step 3: Modify VirtualBox settings

So far, we’ve done the followings, checklist for you:

  1. Created a New Virtual Machine
  2. Created Virtual Hard disk
  3. Fiddled with disk properties, type and size.

At this point you should be in the following screen. Note that I am using Kali 1.0.6 x64 bit, incase you’re using 32-bit you can change those options in here.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (10)

 

Select Kali Linux 1.0.6 (I got many), you might have just one and click on Settings icon

Step 3.a: Select type of OS

Depending on which ISO you downloaded you should select the correct Version here.

As Kali Linux is derived from Debian, I’ve selected Debian (64-bit) on General > Basic > Version. If you’re using a 32-bit ISO, select Debian (32-bit) as your version.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (11)

 

Step 3.b: Enable shared clipboard and dragn’drop feature

Select General > Advanced TAB and change Shared Clipboard and Dragn’Drop to Bidirectional. This will allow you to copy paste files from your HOST machine on the fly.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (12)

 

Step 3.c: Update Virtual Motherboard options

Select System > Motherboard, un-check Floppy (Do you even have a floppy disk drive anymore?) and Check the box for “Enable I/O APIC”. Note that you can change base memory allocation in the same screen. We’ve set it to 1024MB previously. My PC got 8.00GB RAM, which means I can actually allocate a lot more to make Kali response faster on my Virtual Machine. If you feel your Virtualized Kali Linux is slow, you should increase this Base Memory allocation.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (13)

 

The calculations are as follows:

1.00 GB = 1024MB
2.00 GB = 2048MB
3.00 GB = 3072MB

You get the idea, just multiply 1024 with the amount of Memory / RaM you want and put the value in here.

Step 3.d: Select number of Processors and enable PAE/NX

I’ve changed Processor to 2 (I got 8 CPU’s in my machine, this screen will show how many you got). Try sticking with EVEN numbers here.

Check the box for “Enable PAE/NX”.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (14)

Step 3.e: Allocate Video memory and 3D acceleration

Select Display > Video and set Video Memory to 128MB. This allows you have a good responsive desktop environment.

Also check the box for “Enable 3D Acceleration”.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (15)

If you got more than 1 Monitor, you can change your settings here too.

 

Step 4: Loading Kali ISO

Select Storage > Controller: IDE and highlight Empty CD ICON. Now on your right, you should be able to use the little CD ICON (it should be CD/DVD Drive: IDE Secondary Master already, if not change it) and select your downloaded ISO.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (16)

 

Once you select your downloaded ISO (in my case, it’s kali-linux-1.0.6-amd64.iso). See the properties and information’s changes accordingly.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (17)

Important thing to note: Size… if your disk size mismatched, you might have a corrupt disk. Refer to Kali download page and CDimage page for size related info. You can also do a SHA1 check to ensure your disk is not corrupted. More info here.

Step 4.a: Select Network connection type

If your computer is connection to internet, select NAT on Network > Adapter 1. You can enable more network adapters if you feel like to play around.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (18)

 

Step 4.b: Enable USB 2.0 Controllers

From USB TAB, check the boxes for Enable USB Controller > Enable USB 2.0 (EHCI) Controller. Note that I got “Invalid settings detected” error at the bottom of the screen. Install VirtualBox Extension Pack to remove this error.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (19)

 

You need to PRESS OK and save your Settings first.

Close VirtualBox and then install VirtualBox 4.3.10 Oracle VM VirtualBox Extension Pack for All supported platforms.

It will enable virtual USB 2.0 (EHCI) device support, VirtualBox Remote Desktop Protocol (VRDP) support, Host webcam passthrough support.

Re-Open VirtualBox and Select Settings > USB again to confirm you don’t have that error anymore. Save your settings by pressing OK.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (20)

 

Step 4.c: Compare settings with mine

At this point your screen should be somewhat similar to mine. I’ve highlighted the imporatnt parts, if something didn’t match you can go back and enable disable those settings. Note that, for 32-bit users, it will be slightly different.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (21)

 

Step 5. Booting Kali ISO

From VirtualBox Main Screen, Highlight Kali Linux 1.0.6 and Press Start Button. You might want to press F12 on the following screen to play around.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (22)

 

Step 5.a: Select Graphical Install

On Kali Linux Boot menu, highlight Graphical install and press Enter.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (23)

 

Step 5.b: Select language

In my case I’ve chosen English. Click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (24)

Step 5.c: Select location

In my case I’ve chosen Australia. Click Continue.

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (25)

 

Step 5.d: Select keyboard layout

I’ve selected American English. Click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (26)

 

Step 5.e: Enter Hostname

You can enter any name in here. I’ve left the default hostname as “kali”. Click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (27)

 

Step 5.f: Enter Domain name

You can leave it blank if you want. I’ve chosen blackmoreops.com as my domain name. This means I can later ping my computer as kali.blackmoreops.com in my LAN.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (28)

 

Step 5.g: Choose Root password

Enter your root password (anything you choose), confirm and Click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (29)

 

Step 5.h: Configure Clock

Usually you should choose the correct State or province here as otherwise Kali will try to connection incorrect repository and you get slower download speed. Same applies for Location in Step 5.c.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (30)

 

Step 6: Kali disk partitioning

As this is all Virtualized, you can choose anything you want to. I personally think you should play around in this screen to get familiar with how Disk partitioning works. Disk partitioning usually scares the hell out of new users and you are potentially at risk of loosing Data. In VirtualBox environment however, go NUTS!

For the sake of this guide, I will choose the most basic Partitioning method.

 

Step 6.a: Choose Partitioning method

Highlight Guided – use entire disk and Select Continue

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (31)

 

Step 6.b: Select disk to partition

You should have only 1 disk in this screen, highlight it and click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (32)

 

Step 6.c: Select partitioning scheme

Highlight “All files in one partition” and click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (33)

 

You might want to play around in this screen if you feel like. This is a good thing to learn as in corporate environment, you select disk scheme manually.

I will advise you to read Redhat’s Recommended Partitioning Scheme for a better understanding.

 

Step 6.d: Finish partitioning

On the next screen, Highlight Finish partitioning and white change to disk and click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (34)

 

Note that how the partitioning is done. Click Continue when you’re satisfied.

Finally, on the next screen, highlight “Yes” and click Continue to write changes to disks.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (35)

 

Your installation will start now. On my PC which got a 5400 RPM Hard disk, it takes about 8 mins.

 

Step 7: Finalizing installation and running Kali on VirtualBox.

If your HOST machine is connected to Internet, you can update your installation of Kali Linux on VirtualBox by selecting to “Use a Network mirror?”

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (36)

 

On this screen select Yes if you want to update, select No, if you want to do it later. I suggest updating as Kali Linux updated a lot of packages since Kali Linux 10.0.6 was released. This might take sometime, but it’s better this way. Note that it might take anytime between 1-2 hours.

You can always update Kali installation later on. Click Continue when ready.

 

Step 7.a: Provide HTTP Proxy information

If you’re behind a proxy, type it in here, if you’re directly connected to internet, leave it blank and click Continue.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (37)

 

Step 7.b: Install GRUB boot loader

Select Yes to install grub boot loader on the next screen. Press Continue when ready.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (38)

 

Step 7.c: Reboot time!

Once the installation has finished, press continue and the system will reboot.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (39)

 

Step 7.d: Choose Kali on Grub

This screen explains itself. You choose the first option and press Enter. You can choose Recovery mode to play around if you’ve messed something on Grub or system config for recovery.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (40)

 

Step 7.e: Login for the first time

Click on Other and enter root as your username.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (41)

 

Type in the password you’ve selected on step 5.g. Click Log In when ready.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (42)

 

Step 7.f: Your Kali Desktop

Now you’re logged into Kali Linux on VirtualBox. Click on Applications Menu to see more.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (43)

 

Note: Kali uses VESA: Oracle VM VirtualBox VBE Adapter as your Graphics card. This is a Virtualized instance of Graphics card.

 

A detailed guide on installing Kali Linux on VirtualBox - blackMORE Ops - (44)

 

Step 8: Install Virtualbox Guest Additions packages

Now that you’ve installed Kali Linux on Virtualbox, you need to install from Virtualbox Guest Additions packages. Guest Additions are designed to be installed inside a virtual machine after the guest operating system has been installed. They consist of device drivers and system applications that optimize the guest operating system for better performance and usability. This enables the follows for you:

    1. Mouse pointer integration
    2. Shared folders
    3. Better video support
    4. Seamless windows
    5. Time synchronization
    6. Shared clipboard

Without installing VirtualBox Guest Additions package, you screen will be 1024×768 or lower resolution and you wont be able to make Kali run in full screen, leverage any of the shared clipboard functionality.

 

Step 8.a: Mount VirtualBox Guest Additions drive

From device menu on your VirtualBox, click on Install Virtualbox guest additions option (while you’re running Kali Linux) and you’ll see a CD/DVD drive is mounted.

 

Step 8.b: Copy and install the package

Copy the VBoxLinuxAdditions.run file from the drive to the root directory using following command

cp VBoxLinuxAdditions.run /root/

Make it executable:

chmod 755 /root/VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

Install it:

./VBoxLinuxAdditions.run

Once you’ve installed VirtualBox Guest Additions package, reboot Kali Linux.

Now you will have Kali Linux running on full scre

Setup Chroot SFTP in Linux


How to Setup Chroot SFTP in Linux (Allow Only SFTP, not SSH)

 

NFS (Network File System) for Beginners


NFS (Network File System) for Beginners: In this post I am trying to build a base for the beginners. This post will help to proceed further with NFS complex tasks.

What is NFS?

NFS —> Network File System —> The Network File System (NFS) is a client-server service that enables users to view, store, and update files on a remote server as though they were on the their own local server. In Simple layman language NFS provides a “Centralized File Access”.

Example: Suppose you have a 100 users in a company. Out of which 50 require complete access to 10 files/softwares etc. for there daily day to day work and other 50 require access to other commonly used 15 files/softwares etc. for there work. Now instead of placing individual files/softwares on each users server (computer) you should keep the files/softwares in a common shared place which users would have access to. Now each user can access (read/write/modify –> depending upon access provided) those commonly used files/softwares remotely without having them on his/her local server/computer. This will help to save the diskspace as well on all users server.

NFS Model:

========

Server client mode —> NFS is based on Server-C;ient Model. The server where the files are physically stored is called “Master server” and the server which is using thoses files remotely are called “Client server”.

Note: The Solaris 10 OS supports versions 2, 3, and 4 NFS simultaneously. The default is to use NFSv4.

NFS Server Files:

============

/etc/dfs/dfstab —> defines the files/directory to be shared (command used is share), also run shareall command after editing this file. Lists the local resources to share at boot time.

/etc/dfs/sharetab —> shows the result of share command. All share file/dir. will be shown here. Lists the local resources currently being shared by the NFS server. Do not edit this file.

/etc/dfs/fstypes —> Lists the default file system types for remote file systems.

/etc/rmtab —> Contains the table of filesystems remotely mounted by the client. (mountd daemon).

/etc/default/nfs —> parameters for NFS daemons and protocols.

/etc/default/nfslogd —> Lists configuration information describing the behavior of the nfslogd daemon for NFSv2/3.

NFS Server Service:

===============

NFS Server Service: We have to Enable the NFS server service, svc:/network/nfs/server.

# svcs -a | grep -i /network/nfs/server

# svcadm enable /network/nfs/server

# svcs -a | grep -i /network/nfs/server

NFS SERVER DAEMONS:

==================

mountd —> handles clients filesystem mount requests.

nfsd —> client FS request.

statd —> work with lockd for recovery function.

lockd —> recored locking operation.

nfslogd —> Provides operational logging for NFSv2 and 3.

nfsmapid —> NFS users & grps mapping.

NFS SERVER COMMANDS:

===================

share —> shows the shared files (i.e shows the contents of /etc/dfs/sharetab). Makes a local directory on an NFS server available for mounting. It also displays the contents of the /etc/dfs/sharetab file.

unshare —> unshare all. Makes a previously available directory unavailable for client side mount operations.

shareall —> (/etc/dfs/dfstab) —> shows all entries from this file and execute them.

unshareall —> unshare all. Makes previously shared resources unavailable.

dfshares —> show the shared resources.

dfmounts —> Show the currrently mounted FS.

NFS CLIENT FILES:

==============

/etc/vfstab —> Defines file systems to be mounted locally. eg: raheja:/usr/nfstest – /yogeshtest nfs – yes soft,bg

/etc/mnttab –> Lists currently mounted file systems, including automounted directories. The contents of this file are maintained by the kernel and cannot be edited.

/etc/dfs/fstypes —> Lists the default file system types for remote file systems.

/etc/default/nfs —> Contains parameters used by NFS protocols and daemons.

NFS CLIENT DAEMON:

=================

statd —> Works with the lockd daemon to provide crash recovery functions for the lock manager.

lockd —> Supports record-locking operations on NFS files.

nfs4cbd —> callback daemon for NFSv4.

NFS CLIENT COMMANDS:

===================

dfshares —> lists shared resources.

mount —> mount the shared FS. eg: for sharing from single and multiple servers, mount raheja:/usr/nfstest /yogeshtest  and  mount -o ro raheja1,raheja2,raheja3:/multi_homed_data /remote_shared_data

umount —> Unmounts a currently mounted file resource.

mountall —> Mounts all file resources or a specific group of file resources listed in the /etc/vfstab file with a mount at boot value of yes.

umountall —> Unmounts all non-critical local and remote file resources.

==================================================================================

A Simple example to share a file from NFS master server to Client server.

On NFS server:

=============

1.) make one directory as /usr/nfstest.

# mkdir /usr/nfstest

2.) edit /etc/dfs/dfstab file with the shared dir/file info.

# share -F nfs -o ro -d “test NFS sharing” /usr/nfstest

3.) execute share -F nfs /usr/nfstest.

# share -F nfs /usr/nfstest

share [ -F nfs ] [ -o options ] [ -d description ] [ pathname ]

where:

-F nfs Specifies the file system type. This option is not typically required, because NFS is the default remote file system type.

-o options Controls a client’s access to an NFS shared resource.

-d description Describes the shared file resource.

pathname Specifies the absolute path name of the resource for sharing.

4.) share command will show you the output now.

On NFS Client:

==========

5.) On client edit /etc/vfstab

eg: raheja:/usr/nfstest – /yogeshtest nfs – yes soft,bg

6.) Make directory (/yogeshtest) and mount it.

# mount raheja:/usr/nfstest

7.) df -k will show you the shared dir/file now.

Note: 1.) This is the simplest representation of NFS. This will help you to build a base to perform complex NFS tasks. You will find many NFS related issues with their

resolution at our side as we have already posted many posts on NFS.

2.) You can check NFS services running on Server or Client via svcs -a | grep -i nfs.

3.) Kindly refer default files as stated in the post in the server itself for more clarity (eg: cat /etc/dfs/dfstab etc.)

4.) Also it would be more useful to go through the man pages of NFS commands.

%d bloggers like this: