How to check whether my system RAM is DDR2 or DDR3

How to check fqdn in windows

ping -a <ip or server name>

ipconfig /all


systeminfo |find /i “%COMPUTERNAME%.%USERDNSDOMAIN%

ipconfig -all |find /i “Primary Dns Suffix”

Fix: There is a problem with this website’s security certificate in IE

Fix: There is a problem with this website’s security certificate in IE

How to Create a MS-DOS bootable USB flash drive

MS-DOS bootable USB flash is still very useful today. It could be used to access a system that doesn’t have any OS installed. Or, it’s mostly used to flash BIOS or other firmwares from DOS mode.

There is an existing document in the that gives you step by step instruction on how to create a MS-DOS bootable flash drive using HP USB Disk Storage Format tool. See link here:

However, this method may not work for all the USB flash drvies.

Ex: It does not work for my Kingston 4.0GB USB flash drive

Here is another workaround:

Step1: Download rufus utility, Rufus v 1.1.7 without FreeDOS Support (154KB) from here:


Step2: Download win98_bootdisk.iso image from


Step3: Run rufus_v1.1.7.exe



Step4: click the disk icon to the right of “Create a bootable disk using:”, and selected the win98_bootdisk.iso you downloaded in step2.


Step5: click start, once you are finished. You could copy your BIOS upgrade files to this USB flash and run the executables in DOS mode.

Error 1747: The Authentication Service is Unknown

Do not ask me why, my notebook Windows 7 64-bit woke up this morning bothering me with this error

Windows Could not start the Windows Event Log service on Local Computer.
Error 1747: The authentication service is unknown.

I will not even attempt to look for explanations, not worth it. The solution to so, at least in my case, was to follow the steps below:

  • Go to the Start Menu, type cmd and right click or (Ctrl + Shift and hit Enter), and select “Run As Administrator”.

  • Type the following commands, each followed by pressing enter.

ipconfig /flushdns

nbtstat -R

nbtstat -RR

netsh int reset all

netsh int ip reset

netsh winsock reset

netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=disabled


How to Boot in to Safe Mode on Windows 8.1 or 8

Method 1 : Using  MSConfig ( When Windows is Running Normally )

Follow the below steps to start windows in Safe Mode using Windows System Configuration Tool

1. Press the Windows + R key to open Run dialog box

2. Type msconfig into the run box and click OK, this will open System Configuration Tool.


3. Go to the Boot tab. In the Boot tab, check the box that says Safe boot and click OK.


4. That’s it. When you reboot your PC afterwards, it will startup in Safe Mode.

Note : To start windows normally, open msconfig again and uncheck the Safe Boot option.

Method 2 : Using Shift with Restart

1. Hold down the Shift key and then click the Restart button (When you hit the power button via Charms Bar).


2. From the Choose an option screen, click Troubleshoot.


3. Then click Advanced options.


4. Click Startup Settings. Now your PC will be rebooted to enable Startup Settings.

5. Once PC restarts, you will get a list of different startup options.


6. Choose the safe mode option you want from the list.

  • Press F4 to Enable Safe Mode.
  • Press F5 to Enable Safe Mode with Networking
  • Press F6 to Enable Safe Mode with Command Prompt.

7. That’s all. Windows 8.1 or 8 now boot according to the option you selected.

Method 3 : Booting windows 8.1 / 8 in Safe Mode When PC is Not Starting

When windows 8.1 or windows 8 failed to boot, it appears that the boot option will automatically show up the advanced recovery mode. If not starts automatically, you can still manually access the recovery options by holding down the Shift key and repeatedly hit the F8 key before Windows started up. If you are quick and lucky (Windows 8 PCs start up quickly), you can get into the recovery mode.

Hope this helps !

The upgrades process.


How can I find out when Windows was last restarted?


Type the below command:

systeminfo | find /i “Boot Time”

Or with the help of WMIC:

wmic os get lastbootuptime

Windows Commands

Control Panel

•CONTROL: opens the control panel window
•CONTROL ADMINTOOLS: opens the administrative tools
•CONTROL KEYBOARD: opens keyboard properties
•CONTROL COLOUR: opens display properties.Appearance tab
•CONTROL FOLDERS: opens folder options
•CONTROL FONTS: opens font policy management
•CONTROL INTERNATIONAL or INTL.CPL: opens Regional and Language option
•CONTROL MOUSE or MAIN.CPL: opens mouse properties
•CONTROL USERPASSWORDS: opens User Accounts editor
•CONTROL USERPASSWORDS2 or NETPLWIZ: User account access restrictions
•CONTROL PRINTERS: opens faxes and printers available
•APPWIZ.CPL: opens Add or Remove programs utility tool
•OPTIONALFEATURES: opens Add or Remove Windows component utility
•DESK.CPL: opens display properties. Themes tab
•HDWWIZ.CPL: opens add hardware wizard
•IRPROPS.CPL: infrared utility tool
•JOY.CP: opens game controllers settings
•MMSYS.CPL: opens Sound and Audio device Properties. Volume tab
•SYSDM.CPL: opens System properties
•TELEPHON.CPL: Opens phone and Modem options
•TIMEDATE.CPL: Date and Time properties
•WSCUI.CPL: opens Windows Security Center
•ACCESS.CPL: opens Accessibility Options
•WUAUCPL.CPL: opens Automatic Updates
•POWERCFG.CPL: opens Power Options Properties
•AZMAN.MSC: opens authorisation management utility tool
•CERTMGR.MSC: opens certificate management tool
•COMPMGMT.MSC: opens the Computer management tool
•COMEXP.MSC or DCOMCNFG: opens the Computer Services management tool
•DEVMGMT.MSC: opens Device Manager
•EVENTVWR or EVENTVWR.MSC: opens Event Viewer
•FSMGMT.MSC: opens Shared Folders
•NAPCLCFG.MSC: NAP Client configuration utility tool
•SERVICES.MSC: opens Service manager
•TASKSCHD.MSC or CONTROL SCHEDTASKS: opens Schedule Tasks manager
•GPEDIT.MSC: opens Group Policy utility tool
•LUSRMGR.MSC: opens Local Users and Groups
•SECPOL.MSC: opens local security settings
•CIADV.MSC: opens indexing service
•NTMSMGR.MSC: removable storage manager
•NTMSOPRQ.MSC: removable storage operator requests
•WMIMGMT.MSC: opens (WMI) Window Management Instrumentation
•PERFMON or PERFMON.MSC: opens the Performance monitor
•MMC: opens empty Console
•MDSCHED: opens memory diagnostics tools
•DXDIAG: opens DirectX diagnostics tools
•ODBCAD32: opens ODBC Data source Administrator
•REGEDIT or REGEDT32: opens Registry Editor
•DRWTSN32: opens Dr. Watson
•VERIFIER: opens Driver Verifier Manager
•CLICONFG: opens SQL Server Client Network Utility
•UTILMAN: opens Utility Manager
•COLORCPL: opens color management
•CREDWIZ: back up and recovery tool for user passwords
•MOBSYNC: opens Synchronization center
•MSCONFIG: opens System Configuration Utility
•SYSEDIT: opens System Configuration Editor (careful while using this command)
•SYSKEY: Windows Account Database Security management (careful while using this command)

Windows utility and applications

•EPLORER: Opens windows Explorer
•IEXPLORER: Opens Internet explorer
•WAB: opens Contacts
•CHARMAP: opens Character Map
•WRITE: opens WordPad
•NOTEPAD: opens Notepad
•CALC: opens Calculator
•CLIPBRD: opens Clipbook Viewer
•WINCHAT: opens Microsoft Chat Interface
•SOUNDRECORDER: opens sound recording tool
•WMPLAYER: opens Windows Media Player
•MOVIEMK: Opens untitled Windows Movie Maker
•OSK: opens on-screen Keyboard
•MAGNIFY: opens Magnifier
•WINCAL: opens Calendar
•DIALER: opens phone Dialer
•EUDCEDIT: opens Private Character Editor
•NDVOL: opens the mixer volume
•RSTRUI : opens Tool System Restore (For Vista only)
•%WINDIR%\SYSTEM32\RESTORE\rstrui.exe: opens Tool System Restore (for XP only).
•MSINFO32: Opens the System Information
•MRT : launches the utility removal of malware.
•Taskmgr : Opens the Windows Task Manager
•CMD: opens a command prompt
•MIGWIZ: Opens the tool for transferring files and settings from Windows (Vista only)
•Migwiz.exe: Opens the tool for transferring files and settings from Windows (for XP only)
•SIDEBAR: Open the Windows (Vista only)
•Sigverif : Opens the tool for verification of signatures of files
•Winver : Opens the window for your Windows version
•FSQUIRT: Bluetooth Transfer Wizard
•IExpress opens the wizard for creating self-extracting archives. Tutorial HERE
•MBLCTR: opens the mobility center (Windows Vista only)
•MSRA : Opens the Windows Remote Assistance
•Mstsc : opens the tool connection Remote Desktop
•MSDT: opens the diagnostic tools and support Microsoft
•WERCON: opens the reporting tool and solutions to problems (for Vista only)
•WINDOWSANYTIMEUPGRADE: Enables the upgrade of Windows Vista
•WINWORD : opens Word (if installed)
•PRINTBRMUI : Opens migration wizard printer (Vista only)

Disk management

•DISKMGMT.MSC: opens disk management utility
•CLEANMGR: opens disk drive clean up utility
•DFRG.MSC: opens disk defragmenter
•CHKDSK: complete analysis of disk partition
•DISKPART: disk partitioning tool

Connection management

•IPCONFIG: list the configuration of IP addresses on your PC (for more information type IPCONFIG/? in the CMD menu)
•INETCPL.CPL: opens internet properties
•FIREWALL.CPL: opens windows firewall
•NETSETUP.CPL: opens network setup wizard

Miscellaneous commands

•JAVAWS: View the cover of JAVA software (if installed)
•AC3FILTER.CPL: Opens the properties AC3 Filter (if installed)
•FIREFOX: Mozilla launches Firefox (if installed)
•NETPROJ: allow or not connecting to a network projector (For Vista only)
•LOGOFF: closes the current session
•SHUTDOWN: shut down Windows
•SHUTDOWN-A: to interrupt Windows shutdown
•%WINDIR% or %SYSTEMROOT%: opens the Windows installation
•%PROGRAMFILES%: Opens the folder where you installed other programs (Program Files)
•%USERPROFILE%: opens the profile of the user currently logged
•%HOMEDRIVE%: opens the browser on the partition or the operating system is installed
•%HOMEPATH%: opens the currently logged user C: \ Documents and Settings \ [username]
•%TEMP%: opens the temporary folder
•VSP1CLN: deletes the cache for installation of the service pack 1 for Vista
•System File Checker (Requires Windows CD if the cache is not available):
•SFC / scannow: immediately scans all system files and repairs damaged files
•SFC / VERIFYONLY: scans only those files system
•SFC / Scanfil = “name and file path”: scans the specified file, and repaired if damaged
•SFC / VERIFYFILE = “name and file path”: Scans only the file specified
•SFC / scanonce: scans the system files on the next restart
•SFC / REVERT: return the initial configuration (For more information, type SFC /? In the command prompt CMD

User Request – Get Rid of IE’s “Security Information” Prompt for Secure Sites

I’m always eager to learn some Internals, whether its Windows, Office or Internet Explorer. A request from one of our high-profile user provided me this chance. She wanted me to prevent the following message prompt from appearing when she visited secure sites (she did this a lot as part of her work): “This page contains both secure and nonsecure items. Do you want to display the non secure items?

Actually, turning this off is no big deal: go into IE’s Security tab > Internet Zone > Custom Level > Display mixed content and change the setting from Prompt to Enable. However, this setting is often enforced via group policy as part of the standard default security for Internet Security and the setting will eventually end up being reset again. To workaround that, I decided that best way to do this would to be to create a VB script and place it in the user’s startup folder in C:\Documents and Settings\username\Start Menu\Programs\Startup.

To find the registry key(s) involved, I turned to Process Monitor to gather a trace of registry operations in IE when I toggled the radio options. I applied a filter to only trace activity on iexplore.exe and afterward ran a search for key words like Mixed or Content, which revealed the registry keys I needed to focus on:

I right-clicked one of the registry paths and used the Jump to feature to automatically open the registry and go to any of the keys above:

The key and sub-keys here are not actually responsible for enforcing the this setting in IE. They actually point a different portion of the registry that contains the zone information for the Internet. I ignore RegPoliciesPath since this doesn’t exist and focus on RegPath and the ValueName is 1609. One important note here: I don’t want this change to apply to all users on the computer, just our demanding, high-profile user. So instead of navigating to HKEY_Local_Machine I went to the same key in HKEY_Current_User. The zone we are interested in is zone 3, the Internet zone:

The values here can be 0, 1, or 3. 0 = action is permitted. 1 = prompt appears (the one I want to get rid of). 3 = prohibit action. I want to change 1 to 0.

Knowing this, a short vb script is thrown together with notepad:

const HKEY_CURRENT_USER = &H80000001
strComputer = “.”
SetStdOut = WScript.StdOutSet oReg=GetObject(“winmgmts:{impersonationLevel=impersonate}!\\” &_
strComputer & “\root\default:StdRegProv”)

strKeyPath = “Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Zones\3\”

strValueName = “1609”
dwValue = 0
oReg.SetDWORDValue HKEY_CURRENT_USER,strKeyPath,strValueName,dwValue

The downside to this is that this demanding high-profile user makes you their go-to person for everything.

Now, if you’re thinking that a more simple approach is to just add the site to your Trusted sites, yes, this works, but this is negated by another security warning:

This, too, could be turned off but eventually GP would reset

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