How to check whether my system RAM is DDR2 or DDR3


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How to check fqdn in windows

ping -a <ip or server name>

ipconfig /all


systeminfo |find /i “%COMPUTERNAME%.%USERDNSDOMAIN%

ipconfig -all |find /i “Primary Dns Suffix”

Fix: There is a problem with this website’s security certificate in IE

Fix: There is a problem with this website’s security certificate in IE

How to Create a MS-DOS bootable USB flash drive

MS-DOS bootable USB flash is still very useful today. It could be used to access a system that doesn’t have any OS installed. Or, it’s mostly used to flash BIOS or other firmwares from DOS mode.

There is an existing document in the that gives you step by step instruction on how to create a MS-DOS bootable flash drive using HP USB Disk Storage Format tool. See link here:

However, this method may not work for all the USB flash drvies.

Ex: It does not work for my Kingston 4.0GB USB flash drive

Here is another workaround:

Step1: Download rufus utility, Rufus v 1.1.7 without FreeDOS Support (154KB) from here:


Step2: Download win98_bootdisk.iso image from


Step3: Run rufus_v1.1.7.exe



Step4: click the disk icon to the right of “Create a bootable disk using:”, and selected the win98_bootdisk.iso you downloaded in step2.


Step5: click start, once you are finished. You could copy your BIOS upgrade files to this USB flash and run the executables in DOS mode.

Error 1747: The Authentication Service is Unknown

Do not ask me why, my notebook Windows 7 64-bit woke up this morning bothering me with this error

Windows Could not start the Windows Event Log service on Local Computer.
Error 1747: The authentication service is unknown.

I will not even attempt to look for explanations, not worth it. The solution to so, at least in my case, was to follow the steps below:

  • Go to the Start Menu, type cmd and right click or (Ctrl + Shift and hit Enter), and select “Run As Administrator”.

  • Type the following commands, each followed by pressing enter.

ipconfig /flushdns

nbtstat -R

nbtstat -RR

netsh int reset all

netsh int ip reset

netsh winsock reset

netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=disabled


How to Boot in to Safe Mode on Windows 8.1 or 8

Method 1 : Using  MSConfig ( When Windows is Running Normally )

Follow the below steps to start windows in Safe Mode using Windows System Configuration Tool

1. Press the Windows + R key to open Run dialog box

2. Type msconfig into the run box and click OK, this will open System Configuration Tool.


3. Go to the Boot tab. In the Boot tab, check the box that says Safe boot and click OK.


4. That’s it. When you reboot your PC afterwards, it will startup in Safe Mode.

Note : To start windows normally, open msconfig again and uncheck the Safe Boot option.

Method 2 : Using Shift with Restart

1. Hold down the Shift key and then click the Restart button (When you hit the power button via Charms Bar).


2. From the Choose an option screen, click Troubleshoot.


3. Then click Advanced options.


4. Click Startup Settings. Now your PC will be rebooted to enable Startup Settings.

5. Once PC restarts, you will get a list of different startup options.


6. Choose the safe mode option you want from the list.

  • Press F4 to Enable Safe Mode.
  • Press F5 to Enable Safe Mode with Networking
  • Press F6 to Enable Safe Mode with Command Prompt.

7. That’s all. Windows 8.1 or 8 now boot according to the option you selected.

Method 3 : Booting windows 8.1 / 8 in Safe Mode When PC is Not Starting

When windows 8.1 or windows 8 failed to boot, it appears that the boot option will automatically show up the advanced recovery mode. If not starts automatically, you can still manually access the recovery options by holding down the Shift key and repeatedly hit the F8 key before Windows started up. If you are quick and lucky (Windows 8 PCs start up quickly), you can get into the recovery mode.

Hope this helps !

The upgrades process.


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